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    Makefile::Parser - A simple parser for Makefiles

    This document describes Makefile::Parser 0.211 released on March 16,

      use Makefile::Parser;

      $parser = Makefile::Parser->new;

      # equivalent to ->parse('Makefile');
      $parser->parse or
          die Makefile::Parser->error;

      # get last value assigned to the specified variable 'CC':
      print $parser->var('CC');

      # get all the variable names defined in the Makefile:
      @vars = $parser->vars;
      print join(' ', sort @vars);

      @roots = $parser->roots; # Get all the "root targets"
      print $roots[0]->name;

      @tars = $parser->targets;  # Get all the targets
      $tar = join("\n", $tars[0]->commands);

      # get the default target, say, the first target
      # defined in Makefile:
      $tar = $parser->target;

      $tar = $parser->target('install');
      # get the name of the target, say, 'install' here:
      print $tar->name;

      # get the dependencies for the target 'install':
      @depends = $tar->depends;

      # access the shell command used to build the current target.
      @cmds = $tar->commands;

      # parse another file using the same Parser object:
      $parser->parse('Makefile.old') or
        die Makefile::Parser->error;

      # get the target who is specified by variable EXE_FILE
      $tar = $parser->target($parser->var('EXE_FILE'));

    This is a simple parser for Makefiles. At this very early stage, the
    parser only supports a limited set of features, so it may not recognize
    most of the advanced features provided by certain make tools like GNU
    make. Its initial purpose is to provide basic support for another module
    named Makefile::GraphViz, which is aimed to render the building process
    specified by a Makefile using the amazing GraphViz library. The Make
    module is not satisfactory for this purpose, so I decided to build one
    of my own.

    WARNING!!! This stuff is highly experimental and is currently at
    pre-alpha stage, so production use is strongly discouraged. Right now
    it's just a toy for parsing trivial makefiles.

    IMPORTANT!!! If you're looking for something more serious for parsing
    GNU makefiles, please see Makefile::Parser::GmakeDB instead. The GmakeDB
    parser has passed 51% of GNU make's official test suite as of this

    If you're looking for something that can parse makefiles losslessly,
    take a look at the Makefile::DOM module which may fit your needs.

    The current parser implementation has been trying to support a common
    feature set of both MS NMAKE and GNU make. In the future, different
    formats of Makefiles will be handled by individual subclasses such as

    Variable Definition
            MIN_T_FILES = $(PAT_COVER_FILES) t\optest.t t\my_perl.exe.t t\types.cod.t \
                t\catln.t t\exe2hex.t t\hex2bin.t t\bin2hex.t t\bin2asm.t t\ndisasmi.t \
                t\Idu.t t\pat_tree.t t\state_mac.t t\Idu-Util.t t\cidu.t \
                t\opname.t t\error.t t\operand.t t\01disasm.t t\02disasm.t t\03disasm.t \
                t\disasm_cover.t t\ndisasm.t
            T_FILES = t\main.cod.t t\bin2hex.exe.t t\hex2bin.exe.t $(MIN_T_FILES)
            DIRFILESEP = ^\

        "Simply expanded" variables' definition sytax in GUN make is also

            FOO := blah blah blah

        which is considered invalid in Win32 NMake. "Recursively expanded"
        variables are currently treated as "simply expanded" variables.

        Variable redefinition can be handled as well:

            CC = cl

            %.obj : %.c
                $(CC) /nologo /c $<

            CC = gcc

            %.o : %.c
                $(CC) -c $<

        Variable expansion sytax


        is accepted, whereas Win32 NMAKE will complain about it.

        Currently, environment variables defined in the command-line are not

        I have no idea what default value should be assigned to built-in
        variables like $(MAKE) and $(CC). Currently they will be left
        untouched if they're not set explicitly in the Makefile.

        Due to the current implementation, expansion of unrecognized
        built-in varaibles and variables not previously defined by Makefile
        will NOT be performed. This behavior is different from any practial
        make tools, but is reasonable at this early stage of this parser.

    Explicit Rules
            $(CIDU_DLL) : C\idu.obj C\idu.def
                link /dll /nologo /debug /out:$@ /def:C\idu.def C\idu.obj

            $(CIDU_LIB) : $(CIDU_DLL)

            C\idu.obj : C\idu.c C\idu.h
                cd C
                cl /nologo /c /I . idu.c
                cd ..

            smoke : all pat_cover t\pat_cover.t \
                perl util\ . smoke.html
                perl t\*.t t\*.ast

                copy t\pat_cover.ast.ast.html ..\ /Y
                $(RM_F) encoding.html encoding.pod state_mac.xml encoding.ast \
                    pat_tree.ast state_mac.ast \
                    main.cod pat_cover.pod pat_cover.html types.cod \
                    hex2bin.exe hex2bin.obj

        Specital variable $@ will be expanded using its value in the

    Implicit Rules

        Pattern Rules
                %.obj : %.asm
                    masm /t $<;

                %.exe : %.obj
                    link /BATCH /NOLOGO $<;

            The special varaibles $< and $* will be expanded according to
            the context.

        Old-Fashioned Suffix Rules
            Currently only double-suffix rules are supported:

                .SUFFIXES: .obj .asm .exe

                .asm.obj :
                    masm /t $<

                .obj.exe :
                    link /nologo $<

            At this moment, .SUFFIXES is a no-op. So any suffix-like things
            will be treated as suffixes, excluding the following example:

                .c.o: foo.h
                        $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -o $@ $<

            In suffix rules, no prerequisites are allowed according to most
            make tools.

    Substitution References
            objects = foo.o bar.o baz.o
            sources = $(objects:.o=.c)  # foo.c bar.c baz.c

        Currently the following GNU make makefile builtin functions are

        " $(subst from,to,text) "
        " $(patsubst pattern,replacement,text) "
        " $(strip string) "
        " $(findstring find,text) "
        " $(filter pattern...,text) "
        " $(filter-out pattern...,text) "
        " $(sort list) "
        " $(word n,text) "
        " $(words text) "
        " $(wordlist s,e,text) "
        " $(firstword names...) "
        " $(lastword names...) "
        " $(dir names...) "
        " $(notdir names...) "
        " $(suffix names...) "
        " $(basename names...) "
        " $(addsuffix suffix,names...) "
        " $(addprefix prefix,names...) "
        " $(join list1,list2) "
        " $(wildcard pattern...) "
        " $(realpath names...) "
        " $(abspath names...) "
        " $(if condition,then-part[,else-part]) "
        " $(or condition1[,condition2[,condition3...]]) "
        " $(and condition1[,condition2[,condition3...]]) "
        " $(foreach var,list,text) "
        " $(error argument...) "
        " $(warning argument...) "
        " $(info argument...) "
        " $(shell cmd...) "

        Please consult the GNU make Manual for details and also take a look
        at the following file for some use cases:


    Commands after ';'
            all : ; echo 'hello, world!'

        Specital variable $@ will be expanded using its value in the

    For the list of features which will be added very soon, take a look at
    the "TODO" section.

The Makefile::Parser Class
    This class provides the main interface to the Makefile parser.

    "$obj = Makefile::Parser->new()"
        It's the constructor for the Parser class. You may provide the path
        of your Makefile as the argument which . It is worth mentioning that
        the constructor will *not* call ->parse method internally, so please
        remember calling ->parse after you construct the parser object.

    "$obj->parse($Makefile_name, { var => value, ... })"
        This method parse the specified Makefile (default to 'Makefile').

        When an error occurs during the parsing procedure, "parse" will
        return undef. Otherwise, a reference to Parser object itself is
        returned. It is recommended to check the return value every time you
        call this method. The detailed error info can be obtained by calling
        the "error" method.

        You can also pass a hash reference to specify initial variables and
        their values. Note that these variables are treated as "defaults" so
        assignments in the makefile have higher priority.

        It returns the error info set by the most recent failing operation,
        such as a parsing failure.

        The var method returns the value of the given variable. Since the
        value of variables can be reset multiple times in the Makefile, so
        what you get is always the last value set to the variable. It's
        worth noting that variable reassignment can be handled appropriately
        during parsing since the whole parsing process is a one-pass
        operation compared to the multiple-pass strategy used by the CPAN
        module Make.

    "@vars = $obj->vars"
        This will return all the variables defined in the Makefile. The
        order may be quite different from the order they appear in the

        This method returns a Makefile::Target object with the name
        specified. It will returns undef if the rules for the given target
        is not described in the Makefile. It is worth noting that only
        targets with a definition body will be considered as a *target*

        When $target_name is omitted, this method will return the default
        target, say, the first target defined in Makefile, to the user. This
        can be handy if you try to build a make tool on top of this module.

        It is important not to send something like "$(MY_LIB)" as the target
        name. Only raw values are acceptable. If you really want to do
        something like this, please use the following code:

            my $tar = $parser->target($parser->var('MY_LIB'));

        but this code will break if you have reassigned values to variable
        MY_LIB in your Makefile.

    "@targets = $obj->targets()"
        This returns all the targets in Makefile. The order can be
        completely different from the order they appear in Makefile. So the
        following code will not work if you want to get the default target
        (the first target):

            @tars = $parser->targets;
            print $tars[0];

        Please use the following syntax instead:

            print $parser->target;

        The type of the returned list is an array of Makefile::Target

    "@roots = $obj->roots()"
        The "roots" method returns the "root targets" in Makefile. The
        targets which there're no other targets depends on are called the
        *root targets*. For example, *install*, *uninstall*, and *veryclean*
        are all root targets in the Makefile generated by the
        *ExtUtils::MakeMaker* module. On the other hand, *clean* and *test*
        are not, which may be somewhat counterintuitive. That's because
        there're some other targets depend on *clean*, *test*, or both.

        The type of the returned list is an array of Makefile::Target

        When this variable is set to true, the parser will sense syntax
        errors and semantic errors in the Makefile. Default off.

        When this variable is set to true, the parser will enter Debug Mode.
        This variable is not supposed to be used directly by the user.

        Iterate the Makefile AST to apply implicit rules in the following

            %.o : %.c
                $(CC) -c $<

        Solve implicit rules as many as possible using one target name that
        appears in other target's dependency list.

The Makefile::Target Class
    This class overloads the "" operator so its instances can be
    automatically converted to strings using their names.

    "$class->new($target_name, $colon_type)"
        This is the constructor for class Makefile::Target. The first
        argument is the target name which can't be a Makefile variable, the
        second one is a single colon or a double colon which is used by the
        rule definition in Makefile.

        This method is usually called internally by the Makefile::Parser
        class. It doesn't make much sense to me if the user has a need to
        call it manually.

        It will return the name of the current Target object.

    "@prereqs = $obj->prereqs()"
        You can get the list of prerequisites (or dependencies) for the
        current target. If no dependency is specified in the Makefile for
        the target, an empty list will be returned.

    "@prereqs = $obj->depends()"
        Alias to the "prereqs" method. This method is only preserved for the
        sake of backward-compatibility. Please use "prereqs" instead.

        This method returns a list of shell commands used to build the
        current target. If no shell commands is given in the Makefile, an
        empty array will be returned.

    For the very latest version of this module, check out the source from
    <>. There is
    anonymous access to all.

    The following syntax will be implemented soon:

    *   Add support the remaining GNU make makefile builtin functions:

        "origin", "value", "call", "flavor", and "eval".

    *   Add support for recursively-expanded variables.

    *   Implement rules with multiple targets

    *   Serious support for "Recursively expanded" variables in GUN make

    *   Comments that span multiple lines via trailing backslash

    *   Lines that don't contain just comments

    *   Literal "#" escaped by a leading backslash

    *   The include directive

    *   Look for 'GNUmakefile' and 'makefile' automatically

    *   MAKEFILES Variable

    *   MAKEFILE_LIST Variable

    *   .VARIABLES Variable

    Please feel free to report bugs or send your wish-list to

    plmake, makesimple, Makefile::Parser::GmakeDB, Makefile::GraphViz, Make.

    Agent Zhang, "<>"

    Copyright (c) 2005-2008 by Agent Zhang (agentzh).

    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.

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