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README

NAME
    Moo - Minimalist Object Orientation (with Moose compatiblity)

SYNOPSIS
     package Cat::Food;

     use Moo;
     use Sub::Quote;

     sub feed_lion {
       my $self = shift;
       my $amount = shift || 1;

       $self->pounds( $self->pounds - $amount );
     }

     has taste => (
       is => 'ro',
     );

     has brand => (
       is  => 'ro',
       isa => sub {
         die "Only SWEET-TREATZ supported!" unless $_[0] eq 'SWEET-TREATZ'
       },
    );

     has pounds => (
       is  => 'rw',
       isa => quote_sub q{ die "$_[0] is too much cat food!" unless $_[0] < 15 },
     );

     1;

    and else where

     my $full = Cat::Food->new(
        taste  => 'DELICIOUS.',
        brand  => 'SWEET-TREATZ',
        pounds => 10,
     );

     $full->feed_lion;

     say $full->pounds;

DESCRIPTION
    This module is an extremely light-weight, high-performance Moose
    replacement. It also avoids depending on any XS modules to allow simple
    deployments. The name "Moo" is based on the idea that it provides almost
    -but not quite- two thirds of Moose.

    Unlike "Mouse" this module does not aim at full Moose compatibility. See
    "INCOMPATIBILITIES" for more details.

WHY MOO EXISTS
    If you want a full object system with a rich Metaprotocol, Moose is
    already wonderful.

    I've tried several times to use Mouse but it's 3x the size of Moo and
    takes longer to load than most of my Moo based CGI scripts take to run.

    If you don't want Moose, you don't want "less metaprotocol" like Mouse,
    you want "as little as possible" - which means "no metaprotocol", which
    is what Moo provides.

    By Moo 1.0 I intend to have Moo's equivalent of Any::Moose built in - if
    Moose gets loaded, any Moo class or role will act as a Moose equivalent
    if treated as such.

    Hence - Moo exists as its name - Minimal Object Orientation - with a
    pledge to make it smooth to upgrade to Moose when you need more than
    minimal features.

Moo and Moose - NEW, EXPERIMENTAL
    If Moo detects Moose being loaded, it will automatically register
    metaclasses for your Moo and Moo::Role packages, so you should be able
    to use them in Moose code without it ever realising you aren't using
    Moose everywhere.

    Extending a Moose class or consuming a Moose::Role should also work.

    So should extending a Mouse class or consuming a Mouse::Role.

    This means that there is no need for anything like Any::Moose for Moo
    code - Moo and Moose code should simply interoperate without problem. To
    handle Mouse code, you'll likely need an empty Moo role or class
    consuming or extending the Mouse stuff since it doesn't register true
    Moose metaclasses like we do.

    However, these features are new as of 0.91.0 (0.091000) so while
    serviceable, they are absolutely certain to not be 100% yet; please do
    report bugs.

    If you need to disable the metaclass creation, add:

      no Moo::sification;

    to your code before Moose is loaded, but bear in mind that this switch
    is currently global and turns the mechanism off entirely, so don't put
    this in library code, only in a top level script as a temporary measure
    while you send a bug report.

IMPORTED METHODS
  new
     Foo::Bar->new( attr1 => 3 );

    or

     Foo::Bar->new({ attr1 => 3 });

  BUILDARGS
     sub BUILDARGS {
       my ( $class, @args ) = @_;

       unshift @args, "attr1" if @args % 2 == 1;

       return { @args };
     };

     Foo::Bar->new( 3 );

    The default implementation of this method accepts a hash or hash
    reference of named parameters. If it receives a single argument that
    isn't a hash reference it throws an error.

    You can override this method in your class to handle other types of
    options passed to the constructor.

    This method should always return a hash reference of named options.

  BUILD
    Define a "BUILD" method on your class and the constructor will
    automatically call the "BUILD" method from parent down to child after
    the object has been instantiated. Typically this is used for object
    validation or possibly logging.

  DEMOLISH
    If you have a "DEMOLISH" method anywhere in your inheritance hierarchy,
    a "DESTROY" method is created on first object construction which will
    call "$instance->DEMOLISH($in_global_destruction)" for each "DEMOLISH"
    method from child upwards to parents.

    Note that the "DESTROY" method is created on first construction of an
    object of your class in order to not add overhead to classes without
    "DEMOLISH" methods; this may prove slightly surprising if you try and
    define your own.

  does
     if ($foo->does('Some::Role1')) {
       ...
     }

    Returns true if the object composes in the passed role.

IMPORTED SUBROUTINES
  extends
     extends 'Parent::Class';

    Declares base class. Multiple superclasses can be passed for multiple
    inheritance (but please use roles instead).

    Calling extends more than once will REPLACE your superclasses, not add
    to them like 'use base' would.

  with
     with 'Some::Role1';

    or

     with 'Some::Role1', 'Some::Role2';

    Composes one or more Moo::Role (or Role::Tiny) roles into the current
    class. An error will be raised if these roles have conflicting methods.

  has
     has attr => (
       is => 'ro',
     );

    Declares an attribute for the class.

    The options for "has" are as follows:

    * is

      required, may be "ro", "lazy", "rwp" or "rw".

      "ro" generates an accessor that dies if you attempt to write to it -
      i.e. a getter only - by defaulting "reader" to the name of the
      attribute.

      "lazy" generates a reader like "ro", but also sets "lazy" to 1 and
      "builder" to "_build_${attribute_name}" to allow on-demand generated
      attributes. This feature was my attempt to fix my incompetence when
      originally designing "lazy_build", and is also implemented by
      MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

      "rwp" generates a reader like "ro", but also sets "writer" to
      "_set_${attribute_name}" for attributes that are designed to be
      written from inside of the class, but read-only from outside. This
      feature comes from MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

      "rw" generates a normal getter/setter by defaulting "accessor" to the
      name of the attribute.

    * isa

      Takes a coderef which is meant to validate the attribute. Unlike Moose
      Moo does not include a basic type system, so instead of doing "isa =>
      'Num'", one should do

       isa => quote_sub q{
         die "$_[0] is not a number!" unless looks_like_number $_[0]
       },

      Sub::Quote aware

      Since Moo does not run the "isa" check before "coerce" if a coercion
      subroutine has been supplied, "isa" checks are not structural to your
      code and can, if desired, be omitted on non-debug builds (although if
      this results in an uncaught bug causing your program to break, the Moo
      authors guarantee nothing except that you get to keep both halves).

      If you want MooseX::Types style named types, look at
      MooX::Types::MooseLike.

      To cause your "isa" entries to be automatically mapped to named
      Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint objects (rather than the default behaviour
      of creating an anonymous type), set:

        $Moo::HandleMoose::TYPE_MAP{$isa_coderef} = sub {
          require MooseX::Types::Something;
          return MooseX::Types::Something::TypeName();
        };

      Note that this example is purely illustrative; anything that returns a
      Moose::Meta::TypeConstraint object or something similar enough to it
      to make Moose happy is fine.

    * coerce

      Takes a coderef which is meant to coerce the attribute. The basic idea
      is to do something like the following:

       coerce => quote_sub q{
         $_[0] + 1 unless $_[0] % 2
       },

      Note that Moo will always fire your coercion - this is to permit isa
      entries to be used purely for bug trapping, whereas coercions are
      always structural to your code. We do, however, apply any supplied
      "isa" check after the coercion has run to ensure that it returned a
      valid value.

      Sub::Quote aware

    * handles

      Takes a string

        handles => 'RobotRole'

      Where "RobotRole" is a role (Moo::Role) that defines an interface
      which becomes the list of methods to handle.

      Takes a list of methods

       handles => [ qw( one two ) ]

      Takes a hashref

       handles => {
         un => 'one',
       }

    * trigger

      Takes a coderef which will get called any time the attribute is set.
      This includes the constructor. Coderef will be invoked against the
      object with the new value as an argument.

      If you set this to just 1, it generates a trigger which calls the
      "_trigger_${attr_name}" method on $self. This feature comes from
      MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

      Note that Moose also passes the old value, if any; this feature is not
      yet supported.

      Sub::Quote aware

    * default

      Takes a coderef which will get called with $self as its only argument
      to populate an attribute if no value is supplied to the constructor -
      or if the attribute is lazy, when the attribute is first retrieved if
      no value has yet been provided.

      Note that if your default is fired during new() there is no guarantee
      that other attributes have been populated yet so you should not rely
      on their existence.

      Sub::Quote aware

    * predicate

      Takes a method name which will return true if an attribute has a
      value.

      If you set this to just 1, the predicate is automatically named
      "has_${attr_name}" if your attribute's name does not start with an
      underscore, or <_has_${attr_name_without_the_underscore}> if it does.
      This feature comes from MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

    * builder

      Takes a method name which will be called to create the attribute -
      functions exactly like default except that instead of calling

        $default->($self);

      Moo will call

        $self->$builder;

      If you set this to just 1, the predicate is automatically named
      "_build_${attr_name}". This feature comes from
      MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

    * clearer

      Takes a method name which will clear the attribute.

      If you set this to just 1, the clearer is automatically named
      "clear_${attr_name}" if your attribute's name does not start with an
      underscore, or <_clear_${attr_name_without_the_underscore}> if it
      does. This feature comes from MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

    * lazy

      Boolean. Set this if you want values for the attribute to be grabbed
      lazily. This is usually a good idea if you have a "builder" which
      requires another attribute to be set.

    * required

      Boolean. Set this if the attribute must be passed on instantiation.

    * reader

      The value of this attribute will be the name of the method to get the
      value of the attribute. If you like Java style methods, you might set
      this to "get_foo"

    * writer

      The value of this attribute will be the name of the method to set the
      value of the attribute. If you like Java style methods, you might set
      this to "set_foo"

    * weak_ref

      Boolean. Set this if you want the reference that the attribute
      contains to be weakened; use this when circular references are
      possible, which will cause leaks.

    * init_arg

      Takes the name of the key to look for at instantiation time of the
      object. A common use of this is to make an underscored attribute have
      a non-underscored initialization name. "undef" means that passing the
      value in on instantiation is ignored.

  before
     before foo => sub { ... };

    See "before method(s) => sub { ... }" in Class::Method::Modifiers for
    full documentation.

  around
     around foo => sub { ... };

    See "around method(s) => sub { ... }" in Class::Method::Modifiers for
    full documentation.

  after
     after foo => sub { ... };

    See "after method(s) => sub { ... }" in Class::Method::Modifiers for
    full documentation.

SUB QUOTE AWARE
    "quote_sub" in Sub::Quote allows us to create coderefs that are
    "inlineable," giving us a handy, XS-free speed boost. Any option that is
    Sub::Quote aware can take advantage of this.

INCOMPATIBILITIES WITH MOOSE
    There is no built in type system. "isa" is verified with a coderef, if
    you need complex types, just make a library of coderefs, or better yet,
    functions that return quoted subs. MooX::Types::MooseLike provides a
    similar API to MooseX::Types::Moose so that you can write

      has days_to_live => (is => 'ro', isa => Int);

    and have it work with both; it is hoped that providing only subrefs as
    an API will encourage the use of other type systems as well, since it's
    probably the weakest part of Moose design-wise.

    "initializer" is not supported in core since the author considers it to
    be a bad idea but may be supported by an extension in future. Meanwhile
    "trigger" or "coerce" are more likely to be able to fulfill your needs.

    There is no meta object. If you need this level of complexity you wanted
    Moose - Moo succeeds at being small because it explicitly does not
    provide a metaprotocol. However, if you load Moose, then

      Class::MOP::class_of($moo_class_or_role)

    will return an appropriate metaclass pre-populated by Moo.

    No support for "super", "override", "inner", or "augment" - the author
    considers augment to be a bad idea, and override can be translated:

      override foo => sub {
        ...
        super();
        ...
      };

      around foo => sub {
        my ($orig, $self) = (shift, shift);
        ...
        $self->$orig(@_);
        ...
      };

    The "dump" method is not provided by default. The author suggests
    loading Devel::Dwarn into "main::" (via "perl -MDevel::Dwarn ..." for
    example) and using "$obj->$::Dwarn()" instead.

    "default" only supports coderefs, because doing otherwise is usually a
    mistake anyway.

    "lazy_build" is not supported; you are instead encouraged to use the "is
    =" 'lazy'> option supported by Moo and MooseX::AttributeShortcuts.

    "auto_deref" is not supported since the author considers it a bad idea.

    "documentation" will show up in a Moose metaclass created from your
    class but is otherwise ignored. Then again, Moose ignores it as well, so
    this is arguably not an incompatibility.

    Since "coerce" does not require "isa" to be defined but Moose does
    require it, the metaclass inflation for coerce-alone is a trifle insane
    and if you attempt to subtype the result will almost certainly break.

    Handling of warnings: when you "use Moo" we enable FATAL warnings. The
    nearest similar invocation for Moose would be:

      use Moose;
      use warnings FATAL => "all";

    Additionally, Moo supports a set of attribute option shortcuts intended
    to reduce common boilerplate. The set of shortcuts is the same as in the
    Moose module MooseX::AttributeShortcuts as of its version 0.009+. So if
    you:

        package MyClass;
        use Moo;

    The nearest Moose invocation would be:

        package MyClass;

        use Moose;
        use warnings FATAL => "all";
        use MooseX::AttributeShortcuts;

    or, if you're inheriting from a non-Moose class,

        package MyClass;

        use Moose;
        use MooseX::NonMoose;
        use warnings FATAL => "all";
        use MooseX::AttributeShortcuts;

    Finally, Moose requires you to call

        __PACKAGE__->meta->make_immutable;

    at the end of your class to get an inlined (i.e. not horribly slow)
    constructor. Moo does it automatically the first time ->new is called on
    your class.

SUPPORT
    Users' IRC: #moose on irc.perl.org

    Development and contribution IRC: #web-simple on irc.perl.org

AUTHOR
    mst - Matt S. Trout (cpan:MSTROUT) <mst@shadowcat.co.uk>

CONTRIBUTORS
    dg - David Leadbeater (cpan:DGL) <dgl@dgl.cx>

    frew - Arthur Axel "fREW" Schmidt (cpan:FREW) <frioux@gmail.com>

    hobbs - Andrew Rodland (cpan:ARODLAND) <arodland@cpan.org>

    jnap - John Napiorkowski (cpan:JJNAPIORK) <jjn1056@yahoo.com>

    ribasushi - Peter Rabbitson (cpan:RIBASUSHI) <ribasushi@cpan.org>

    chip - Chip Salzenberg (cpan:CHIPS) <chip@pobox.com>

    ajgb - Alex J. G. BurzyƄski (cpan:AJGB) <ajgb@cpan.org>

    doy - Jesse Luehrs (cpan:DOY) <doy at tozt dot net>

    perigrin - Chris Prather (cpan:PERIGRIN) <chris@prather.org>

COPYRIGHT
    Copyright (c) 2010-2011 the Moo "AUTHOR" and "CONTRIBUTORS" as listed
    above.

LICENSE
    This library is free software and may be distributed under the same
    terms as perl itself.

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