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This directory is essentially deprecated. Please see ../arithmetic-5/README for information about which arithmetic books to use. ================================================================= README for Arithmetic-3 Author: Robert Bellarmine Krug Read at least Section 1.A. Also, see Section 0 of ../arithmetic-5/README for information about which arithmetic books to use. ================================================================= Contents 1. HOW TO USE THE ARITHMETIC-3 BOOKS. 1.A. In Brief 1.B. Choosing a Normal Form. 1.C. Mini-theories. 2. HOW TO PROVE THEOREMS USING ACL2. 2.A. Introduction. 2.B. How to Use the Theorem Prover --- ``The Method''. 2.C. Structured Theory Development. 2.D. A Few Notes. ================================================================= 1. HOW TO USE THE ARITHMETIC-3 BOOKS. 1.A. In Brief First certify the books in arithmetic-3. Then, after starting ACL2, execute the following two forms: (include-book "arithmetic-3/top" :dir :system) (set-default-hints '((nonlinearp-default-hint stable-under-simplificationp hist pspv))) Note 1: If you are having difficulty proving a ``simple'' theorem and the arithemtic book's rules seem to be getting in the way, You can execute (set-minimal-arithmetic-theory) This will disable almost all of the arithmetic book's rules, leaving you with a small set. Execute (set-default-arithmetic-theory) to return to the default starting point of the arithemtic books. Note 2: Occasionally non-linear arithmetic will go off into the weeds and consume too much time. If you notice that ACL2 is taking too long on a particular goal or theorem, you can try executing (set-default-hints nil) before retrying the problematic theorem. This will result in a theory which ``knows'' less about multiplication, so one should examine any failed goals with this in mind. One should also remember to re-enable the nonlinearp-default-hint afterwards. 1.B. Choosing a Normal Form. The major goal of this library is to provide a set of rewrite rules which will drive systems of arithmetic expressions into a useful normal form. There are, however, at least two barriers to achieving this goal. First, as Kurt G\"odel showed, integer arithmetic is formally undecidable; i.e., there is no algorithm which will fully normalize all systems of arithmetic expressions. Second, there is no reason to believe that there is one ``best'' normal form. We therefore provide the ability to choose any one of several alternative normal forms. Before we go any further we should mention that there is, in general, no reason to use the information in the rest of this section. We believe that the default setup is sufficient for most purposes. On occasion one will run across a lemma which requires a different normal form and it is for these occasions that we provide the following; however, for many users it will be sufficient to just include the appropriate books and to execute (set-default-hints '(nonlinearp-default-hint stable-under-simplificationp hist pspv)) as described above. Gather/Scatter-exponents: There are (at least) two ways of normalizing the (almost) equivalent terms: (expt x (+ m n)) and (* (expt x m) (expt x n)). (Question: Under what conditions are these two terms not equivalent?) One can choose the first of these as the normal form and gather exponents, or one can choose the second as the normal form and scatter exponents. That is, one can choose to rewrite (expt x (+ m n)) to (* (expt x m) (expt x n)) --- to scatter exponents; or to rewrite (* (expt x m) (expt x n)) to (expt x (+ m n)) --- to gather exponents. By default, exponents are gathered when the book Bind-free/top is loaded. To switch to scattering exponents, execute (scatter-exponents) at the top level prompt. To resume gathering exponents, execute (gather-exponents). These two forms are macros which expand to the appropriate set of commands. (To see their expansions, one can execute :trans (scatter-exponents) or :trans (gather-exponents) at the top-level. It is slightly more complex to switch theories within a :hints form. One can use :in-theory (e/d (scatter-exponents-theory) (gather-exponents-theory)) and :in-theory (e/d (gather-exponents-theory) (scatter-exponents-theory prefer-positive-exponents-scatter-exponents-theory)) to switch to scattering exponents or gathering exponents respectively. Prefer-positive-addends: This theory (enabled by default) moves negative addends to the other side of an equality or inequality. A simple example is: (< (+ a (- b) c) (+ d (* -3 e))) ===> (< (+ a c (* 3 e)) (+ b d)). Execute (do-not-prefer-positive-addends) at the top-level to disable this theory and (prefer-positive-addends) to re-enable it. To switch theories within a :hints form, one can use: :in-theory (disable prefer-positive-addends-theory) and :in-theory (enable prefer-positive-addends-theory) to disable or enable this theory. Prefer-positive-exponents: This theory (disabled by default) moves factors with negative exponents to the other side of an equality or inequality. A simple example is: (equal (* a (/ b) c) (* d (expt e -3))) ===> (equal (* a c (expt e 3)) (* b d)). One can enable this with (prefer-positive-exponents) and disable it with (do-not-prefer-positive-exponents) at the top level prompt. Note that (prefer-positive-exponents) is a specialization of (scatter-exponents). It therefore switches to scattering exponents if this has not been done previously. Thus, one may need to execute (gather-exponents) after (do-not-prefer-positive-exponents) if one was originally gathering exponents and wished to resume doing so. To switch theories within a :hints form, one can use: :in-theory (e/d (scatter-exponents-theory prefer-positive-exponents-scatter-exponents-theory) (gather-exponents-theory)) and :in-theory (disable prefer-positive-exponents-scatter-exponents-theory) or :in-theory (e/d (gather-exponents-theory) (scatter-exponents-theory prefer-positive-exponents-scatter-exponents-theory)). 1.C. Mini-theories. The book mini-theories contains several useful lemmatta not enabled by default. We recommend that you look briefly at this book. Here we describe two of the lemmas which are included. Two lemmas --- |(- x)| and |(/ x)| --- are included for those who like to replace subtraction with multiplication by -1 and division by exponentiation. If you enable these, be sure to disable their inverses, |(* -1 x)| and |(expt x -1)|, or you will get infinite rewrite loops. ================================================================= In this mini-essay, we assume a basic familiarity with ACL2. 2. HOW TO PROVE THEOREMS USING ACL2. 2.A. Introduction. When using ACL2, it is important to take an organized approach to the proof process. Sections 1.B. and 1.C. are a summary of the material to be found in Chapter 9 of Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach and Chapter 6 of Computer-Aided Reasoning: ACL2 Case Studies. I highly recommend these two books to the serious ACL2 user. In section 2.D. we address a few issues that are too often overlooked by the ACL2 user. Here, we mention a few simple points about using ACL2. 1. ACL2 is automatic only in the sense that you cannot steer it once it begins a proof attempt. You can only interrupt it. 2. You are responsible for guiding it, usually by proving the necessary lemmas. 3. Never prove a lemma without also thinking about how it will be used. 4. To lead ACL2 to a proof, you usually must know the proof yourself. 2.B. How to Use the Theorem Prover --- ``The Method'' In this section, we outline `The Method''. While it is only one of many possible styles of working with ACL2, we have found it to be a useful starting point from which to develop one's own method. In the following section we will discuss some of its weaknesses and how to get around them. Let us imagine that we want to prove some theorem, MAIN; that in order to do so it is sufficient to use lemmas A, B, and C; and that each of these lemmas can be proved using sub-lemmas as depicted in the proof tree below. MAIN | | -------------------------------------- | | | | | | A B C | | | | | | ----------- --------- ----------- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 | | --------- | | | | A1a A2b One will not usually have worked out the proof (or even necessity) of every lemma before trying to prove MAIN. In fact, most users work out the detailed structure of the proof tree during their interaction with ACL2. Merely keeping track of what has been proved and what remains to be proved is daunting enough. It is this book-keeping task that ``The Method'' is designed to assist. The goal of the procedure we outline here is to produce a sequence of defthm commands which will lead ACL2 to a proof of MAIN. The procedure will produce a post-order traversal of the tree (A1, A1a, A1b, A2, A3, A, B2, B2, B, C1, C2, C, MAIN). We use ACL2 in conjunction with a text editor such as Emacs where we can run ACL2 as a process in a *shell* buffer, and maintain a second buffer for input commands, referred to as the script buffer. When we are done, the script buffer will contain the postorder traversal of the proof tree. But, as we construct the proof the script buffer is logically divided into two parts by an imaginary line we call the barrier. The part above the barrier consists of the commands that have been carried out, while the part below the buffer contains the commands we intend to carry out later. The barrier is, by convention, denoted by the s-expression (I-am-here). Initially, the script buffer should contain only the theorem MAIN with the barrier at the top of the buffer; i.e., the done list is empty and the to-do list contains only MAIN. Here is ``The Method''. 1. Think about the proof of the first theorem in the to-do list. Have the necessary lemmas been proved? If so, go to step 2. Otherwise add them to the front of the to-do list and repeat step 2. 2. Try proving the first theorem with ACL2 and let the output stream into the *shell* buffer. Abort the proof if it runs too long. 3. If ACL2 succeeded, advance the barrier past the successful command and go to step 2. Otherwise go to step 4. 4. Inspect the output of the failed proof attempt from the beginning rather than from the end, You should look for the first place the proof attempt deviated from your imagined proof. Modify the script appropriately --- this usually means adding lemmas to the front of the to-do list although you may need to add hints to the current theorem. Sometimes, especially if the reason for the failure is that the theorem is false, this may mean modifying the script both above and below the barrier. Go to step 2. 2.C. Structured Theory Development. There are several shortcomings of ``The Method''. In this section, we describe some of these shortcomings and discuss an elaboration of ``The Method'' which should lessen their influence. First, ``The Method'' provides no guidance for developing the over-all structure of a substantial proof effort. It is too easy to lose one's way in the middle of the proof effort and, moreover, once the proof is complete it can be quite difficult to comprehend its structure. Such comprehension is important for presenting the proof to others, and is also useful for modifying the proof --- either in order to clean it up or in order to prove a related theorem. Second, use of ``The Method'' is prone to lead to the following: One desires to prove a certain lemma, but it requires a lemma in support of its proof, which leads to another lemma to be proved in support of \emph{that} one, and so on. At some point the effort seems misguided, but by then the evolving proof structure is far from clear and it is difficult to decide how far to back up. Even if a decision is made to back up to a particular lemma, is it clear which lemmas already proved may be discarded? Finally, even if the above process is successful for a while, it can ultimately be problematic in an even more frustrating way. Suppose that one attempts to prove some goal theorem, and from the failed proof attempt one identifies rewrite rules that appear to be helpful, say, L1 and L2. Suppose further that additional rewrite rules are proved on the way to proving L1 and L2. When one again attempts to prove the original goal theorem, those additional rules can send the proof attempt in a new direction and prevent L1 and L2 from being used. We describe here a modular, top-down methodology which reflects common proof development practice in the mathematical community and is designed to lessen the above described problems. Here is an outline describing many proofs, both mechanically checked ones, and others. 1. To prove the main theorem Main: 2. It should suffice to prove lemmas A, B, and C. (Main Reduction) 3. We need to draw upon a body of other, previously completed work. (Proof Support) 4. We may also need a few additional, minor, lemmas. (Proof Hacking) The outline may be reflected in the following structure of a top-level book, which (at least initially) can use defaxiom or skip-proofs as shown in order to defer the proofs of the main lemmas. (include-book ``lib'') ; 3. Support (defaxiom A ...) ; 2. Main Reduction (defaxiom B ...) (defaxiom C ...) <minor lemmas> ; 4. Proof Hacking (defthm MAIN ...) ; 1. Goal This use of defaxiom has the advantage that one can verify that lemmas A, B, and C are actually the ones needed to prove MAIN without having to do a lot of work to prove them. In step four of our description of ``The Method'', we said that one should add any new lemmas to the front of the to-do list and then go directly to step one. Here, we recommend adding these new lemmas using skip-proofs (or as axioms) and making sure that they are what is needed before continuing. For purposes of illustration assume that we next want to prove lemma C. Above, we suggested that this be done by adding any necessary sub-lemmas in front of this main lemma. Here, we suggest that one of two techniques be used. If the proof of C requires only two or three lemmas, and each of these requires no further sub-lemmas, prove C within the scope of an encapsulate as in: (encapsulate () (local (defthm C1 ...)) (local (defthm C2 ...)) (defthm C ...) ). Note that by making lemmas C2 and C2 local to the encapsulate they will not be seen outside of the context in which they were designed to be used, and so will not change the behavior of any events later in the script. Their influence has been limited and the chances for surprises has been lessened. If the proof of lemma C is more complex --- if it requires more than a couple of lemmas or if those sub-lemmas themselves require sub-lemmas --- lemma C should be proved in a separate book named C.lisp and the following should appear in the main script: (encapsulate () (local (include-book "C")) (defthm C ...) ). The book C.lisp should then be recursively treated as described here with lemma C playing the role of MAIN. This delegation of the work to prove C to another book makes the file MAIN.lisp much easier to read, and the hierarchy of book inclusions reflects the overall structure of the proof. (See certify-book and include-book in the documentation. We assume here that C.lisp will be certified at some point during the proof development cycle.) Note that we are using two types of books: 2. Lemma Books: Book name is the same as the name of the final theorem proved in the book. Main lemmas can be postponed to be proved in subsidiary lemma books, temporarily replaced by defaxiom in the present book. 2. Library Books: Other than a lemma book, typically it contains generally useful definitions and lemmas. Our top-down methodology suggests a focus on developing reasonably short lemma books. The trick to keeping their length under control is first to identify the main lemmas in support of the book's goal theorem, then pushing their proofs into subsidiary lemma sub-books, especially when supporting sub-lemmas may be required. Each main lemma is handled as illustrated above with sub-books A, B, and C: an encapsulate event contains first a local include-book of the corresponding lemma sub-book, and second the main lemma. An important aspect of this approach is that the way in which a sub-lemma is proved in such a sub-book will not affect the certification of the parent book. That is, the use of local around the include-book of a lemma sub-book allows the sub-book to be changed, other than changing its goal theorem, without affecting the certification of the parent book. This modularity can prevent replay problems often encountered when using less structured approaches to mechanically-assisted proof. Although our focus here has been on lemma books, there is still a role for library books. It can be useful from time to time to browse ones current collection of books and to pull out the most general of these lemmas and put them into one or more library books. This is how the library books in books/arithmetic, for instance, were developed. 2.D. A Few Notes. We finish this part with some more simple points which are easy to overlook: 1. Definitions, both recursive and non-recursive, should be disabled as soon as possible. Non-recursive functions, which can be regarded as abbreviations, will be opened up by ACL2 at the first opportunity and so will rarely be used as intended if they are enabled. Recursive definitions will not disappear in the same way, and so the desirability of disabling them is not as readily apparent. However, if they are enabled ACL2 will open them up each time they are seen, attempt to rewrite them, and then close them back up again unless the rewritten definition is ``better'' than the unopened definition. Unless one is proving simple facts about the function this is often a large waste of time. We have seen proofs go from taking more than 30 minutes to under 15 seconds by disabling (an admittedly large number of complicated and mutually) recursive function definitions. 2. In addition to the ``obvious'' facts about a function which one should prove before disabling it, one should prove lemmas about the simple cases which can arise surprisingly often. In the case of arithmetic functions this would include such cases as repeated arguments, e.g., (logand x x) = x, and base cases, e.g., (expt x 0) = (if (equal x 0) 0 1), (expt x 1) = (fix x), and (expt x -1) = (/ x). 3. Once one is comfortable with the use of rewrite rules, one should next explore the use of type-prescription rules and linear lemmas. Type-prescription rules can be a bit tricky to get used to, but it is well worth the effort. One common problem newer users encounter is with the way hypotheses of type-prescription rules are relieved --- type reasoning alone must be sufficient. The primitive types in ACL2 are: *TS-ZERO* ;;; {0} *TS-POSITIVE-INTEGER* ;;; positive integers *TS-POSITIVE-RATIO* ;;; positive non-integer rationals *TS-NEGATIVE-INTEGER* ;;; negative integers *TS-NEGATIVE-RATIO* ;;; negative non-integer rationals *TS-COMPLEX-RATIONAL* ;;; complex rationals *TS-NIL* ;;; {nil} *TS-T* ;;; {t} *TS-NON-T-NON-NIL-SYMBOL* ;;; symbols other than nil, t *TS-PROPER-CONS* ;;; null-terminated non-empty lists *TS-IMPROPER-CONS* ;;; conses that are not proper *TS-STRING* ;;; strings *TS-CHARACTER* ;;; characters. If ones hypotheses deal only with these types (or there union such as integerp or true-listp) one is usually OK. Otherwise, the necessary facts must be present explicitly in the hypotheses of the goal being proved, or else themselves be relievable by other type-prescription rules. In particular, rewriting is not used. (For example, the presence of (< 4 x) as a hypothesis is not sufficient for type-reasoning to establish (< 3 x).) 4. The use of defaxiom (or skip-proofs) is a good way to avoid wasting time proving useless lemmas. 5. False theorems are surprisingly hard to prove. Even the most experienced ACL2 user will regularly write a false theorem. When a proof just will not go through, examine the output of the failed proof attempt with an eye to test cases which may reveal a problem. 6. (From the documentation) Stack overflows are most often caused by looping rewrite rules. In some Lisps, especially GCL, stack overflows often manifest themselves as segmentation faults, causing the entire ACL2 image to crash. Finding looping rewrite rules can be tricky, especially if you are using books supplied by other people. A wonderful trick is the following. When there is a stack overflow during a proof, abort and then try it again after turning on rewrite stack monitoring with :brr t. When the stack overflows again, exit to raw Lisp. How you exit to raw Lisp depends on which Lisp you are using. In Allegro Common Lisp, for example, the stack overflow will leave you in an interactive break. You must exit this break, e.g., with :continue 1. This will leave you in the top-level ACL2 command loop. You must exit this environment with :q. That will leave you in raw Allegro. After getting into raw Lisp, execute (cw-gstack) The loop in the rewriter will probably be evident! If you are in GCL the stack overflow will probably cause a segmentation fault and abort the Lisp job. This makes it harder to debug but here is what you do. First, re-create the situation just prior to submitting the form that will cause the stack overflow. You can do this without suffering through all the proofs by using the :ld-skip-proofsp option of ld to reload your scripts. Before you submit the form that causes the stack overflow, exit the ACL2 command loop with :q. In raw GCL type (si::use-fast-links nil) This will slow GCL down but make it detect and signal stack overflows rather than overwrite the system memory. Now reenter the ACL2 command loop with (lp). Now carry on as described above, turning on rewrite stack monitoring with :brr t and provoking the stack overflow. When it occurs, you will be in an interactive break. Exit to raw Lisp with two successive :q's, one to get out of the error break and the next to get out of the top-level ACL2 command loop. Then in raw GCL execute the cw-gstack above. Suggestion: Once you have found the loop and fixed it, you should execute the ACL2 command :brr nil, so that you don't slow down subsequent proof attempts. If you are in GCL, you should also get into raw Lisp and execute (si::use-fast-links t).

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