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courier-faxmail - Courier mail server - Fax<->mail gateway…  more info»


COURIERFAX(8)          Double Precision, Inc.          COURIERFAX(8)

       courierfax - Send faxes via E-mail

       sendmail [5558888@fax]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-lowres]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-ignore]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-cover]

       The courierfax module (if enabled by the system
       administrator) sends E-mail messages by fax. Addressing an
       E-mail message to the address 5558888@fax faxes a printed
       copy of the message to the specified phone number.

       The ability to send faxes may be restricted, or not
       available. The E-mail message may be a MIME-formatted
       message. All attachments are concatenated and sent together
       in a single fax transmission.  courierfax only knows how to
       handle certain kinds of attached. Obviously, trying to fax a
       voice .mp3 attaching is not going to work.  courierfax knows
       how to handle plain text, Postscript, and PDF MIME
       attachments.  courierfax might also know what to do with
       other kinds of attachment, depending on some optional
       software installed by the system administrator.  courierfax
       may also be able to read GIF, PNG, and JPEG images.

           Color images are converted to black-and-white.

       Images are faxed with one image per fax page (limiting image
       sizes to about 1600x2200).

       The message will be returned as undeliverable if courierfax
       doesn´t know how to handle a MIME attachment. If the first
       MIME section in the E-mail message is plain text, the text
       appears on the fax cover page. The sender/recipient
       information for the cover page is taken from the message´s

       The default courierfax configuration tries to resend the fax
       for up to eight hours, after which the message is returned as
       undeliverable. The message will also be returned as
       undeliverable if the fax transmission is interrupted. The
       return bounce will state how many pages were successfully

       "@fax" may also be followed by additional keywords that
       specify extra options:

           Send a low-resolution fax.

           Ignore any attachment types that courierfax doesn´t

           Send a cover page only. This is useful in limited
           situations, with something like this in a
           dot-courier(5)[1] file:

                ! 5552222@fax-cover
           This .courier file faxes the contents of a message, sans
           any attachments, immediately upon receipt in addition to
           saving the message in the mailbox.

       The sender will receive a fax transmission receipt if the
       sender requests an ESMTP delivery status notification. This
       is the -N option to sendmail(8)[2]:

           sendmail -Nsuccess 5556666@fax <messagefile

       When using other mail software, consult the mail software´s
       documentation for instructions on requesting ESMTP delivery
       status notifications.

       courierfax configurations that are generated by the webadmin
       tool for North American environments usually restrict phone
       numbers to a standardized ten-digit telephone number, so that
       the fax address is always <aaabbbcccc@fax>, and courierfax
       silently performs any needed conversion to dial the number
       (such as adding “1” or dropping the local areacode).

       It is also possible to reconfigure courierfax so that it
       accepts any telephone string and dials it without any
       preprocessing. If so, the address may contain any combination
       of digits, letters “A”, “B”, “C”, and “D”, representing the
       four extra dialing tones not normally accessible from most
       telephone keypads, the symbols “*” and “#”, or the following

           Most faxmodems pause and wait for a secondary dialtone,
           before dialing the rest of the number.

           The dash is replaced by a comma in the dialing string. A
           comma results in most faxmodems pausing for two or three
           seconds before dialing the rest of the number. It is not
           possible to enter a comma directly, because commas are
           used to separate multiple E-mail addresses. Use dashes
           instead of commas in the dialing string.  courierfax
           replaces all dashes with commas before dialing the

           Similarly, courierfax replaces all pluses with “@”
           characters before dialing. An “@” characters results in
           most faxmodems waiting for the line to be silent for five
           seconds before dialing the rest of the number. It is not
           possible to enter a “@” directly as part of the telephone
           number itself, for the obvious reasons. Use pluses
           instead of “@”s in the dialing string.  courierfax
           replaces all pluses with “@” before dialing the faxmodem.

       The slightly arcane configuration file, /etc/courier/faxrc,
       sets up which dialing strings are valid. The default
       configuration file contains judicious comments that explain
       all the parameters, and what they do. The default
       configuration file disables courierfax by rejecting all
       telephone numbers. The file must be edited in accordance with
       the embedded instructions, in order to enable faxing.

       Using webadmin is highly recommended. Upon demand, webadmin
       will install a suitable configuration file for the North
       American numbering plan, that receives all telephone numbers
       as ten-digit numbers, and adds any required long distance
       prefix, or removes the local area code, as appropriate. Or,
       webadmin will install a bare-bones configuration file that
       dials any requested phone number, without any editing or

       There is no good way to sleep until a modem lock is released,
       so we poll every minute.


       Sam Varshavchik

        1. dot-courier(5)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/dot-courier.html

        2. sendmail(8)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/sendmail.html

        3. courier(8)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/courier.html

Courier Mail Server          04/04/2011                COURIERFAX(8)
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