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curl - A utility for getting files from remote servers (FTP, HTTP, and others).…  more info»

curl.1.gz

curl(1)                      Curl Manual                     curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a  tool to transfer data from or to a server, using
       one of the supported protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, TFTP,
       DICT, TELNET, LDAP or FILE).  The command is designed to work
       without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks  like  proxy  support,
       user authentication, ftp upload, HTTP post, SSL (https:) con‐
       nections, cookies, file transfer resume and more. As you will
       see below, the amount of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features.
       See libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol dependent. You'll find a  detailed
       description in RFC 3986.

       You  can  specify  multiple  URLs or parts of URLs by writing
       part sets within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by  using  []
       as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt     (with leading
       zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       No nesting of the sequences is supported at the  moment,  but
       you can use several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You  can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They
       will be fetched in  a  sequential  manner  in  the  specified
       order.

       Since  curl  7.15.1 you can also specify step counter for the
       ranges, so that you can get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL  without  protocol://  prefix,  curl  will
       attempt  to  guess what protocol you might want. It will then
       default to HTTP but try other protocols based  on  often-used
       host name prefixes. For example, for host names starting with
       "ftp." curl will assume you want to speak FTP.

       Curl will attempt to re-use  connections  for  multiple  file
       transfers,  so  that  getting many files from the same server
       will not do multiple connects  /  handshakes.  This  improves
       speed.  Of  course  this is only done on files specified on a
       single command line and cannot be used between separate  curl
       invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl  normally  displays  a progress meter during operations,
       indicating amount of transfered  data,  transfer  speeds  and
       estimated time left etc.

       However, since curl displays data to the terminal by default,
       if you invoke curl to do an operation  and  it  is  about  to
       write data to the terminal, it disables the progress meter as
       otherwise it would mess up the output mixing  progress  meter
       and response data.

       If  you  want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests,
       you need to redirect the response output  to  a  file,  using
       shell redirect (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It  is  not the same case for FTP upload as that operation is
       not spitting out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular  meter,
       -# is your friend.

OPTIONS
       -a/--append
              (FTP)  When used in an FTP upload, this will tell curl
              to append to the target file  instead  of  overwriting
              it. If the file doesn't exist, it will be created.

              If this option is used twice, the second one will dis‐
              able append mode again.

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to  send  to  the
              HTTP  server. Some badly done CGIs fail if its not set
              to "Mozilla/4.0".  To encode  blanks  in  the  string,
              surround the string with single quote marks.  This can
              also be set with the -H/--header option of course.

              If this option is set more than  once,  the  last  one
              will be the one that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to figure out authentication method
              by itself, and use the most secure one the remote site
              claims  it  supports.  This  is  done by first doing a
              request and checking the response-headers, thus induc‐
              ing  an extra network round-trip. This is used instead
              of setting a specific authentication method, which you
              can  do  with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negoti‐
              ate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do
              uploads  from  stdin,  since it may require data to be
              sent twice and then the client must be able to rewind.
              If  the  need  should arise when uploading from stdin,
              the upload operation will fail.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  following
              occurrences make no difference.

       -b/--cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP)  Pass  the data to the HTTP server as a cookie.
              It is supposedly the data previously received from the
              server in a "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data should be in
              the format "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' letter is used in the line, it is treated as
              a  filename  to  use  to read previously stored cookie
              lines from, which should be used in  this  session  if
              they  match.  Using  this  method  also  activates the
              "cookie parser" which will make curl  record  incoming
              cookies  too,  which may be handy if you're using this
              in combination with the -L/--location option. The file
              format  of  the  file  to  read cookies from should be
              plain HTTP headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file
              format.

              NOTE  that the file specified with -b/--cookie is only
              used as input. No cookies will be stored in the  file.
              To  store  cookies,  use the -c/--cookie-jar option or
              you could even save the HTTP headers to a  file  using
              -D/--dump-header!

              If  this  option  is  set more than once, the last one
              will be the one that's used.

       -B/--use-ascii
              Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP,
              this  can  also  be enforced by using an URL that ends
              with ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout
              to be in text mode for win32 systems.

              If this option is used twice, the second one will dis‐
              able ASCII usage.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use  HTTP  Basic  authentication.
              This  is the default and this option is usually point‐
              less, unless you use it to override a  previously  set
              option  that  sets  a  different authentication method
              (such as --ntlm, --digest and --negotiate).

              If this option is used several  times,  the  following
              occurrences make no difference.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL)  Specifies  which  ciphers to use in the connec‐
              tion. The list of ciphers must be using valid ciphers.
              Read  up  on  SSL  cipher  list  details  on this URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will override the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP)  Request a compressed response using one of the
              algorithms libcurl supports,  and  return  the  uncom‐
              pressed  document.   If  this  option  is used and the
              server sends an unsupported encoding, Curl will report
              an error.

              If  this option is used several times, each occurrence
              will toggle it on/off.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  connection
              to  the  server to take.  This only limits the connec‐
              tion phase, once curl has connected this option is  of
              no more use. See also the -m/--max-time option.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       -c/--cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify to which file you want curl to write all cook‐
              ies after a completed operation. Curl writes all cook‐
              ies previously read from a specified file as  well  as
              all  cookies  received  from  remote  server(s). If no
              cookies are known, no file will be written.  The  file
              will be written using the Netscape cookie file format.
              If you set the file name to a single  dash,  "-",  the
              cookies will be written to stdout.

              NOTE If the cookie jar can't be created or written to,
              the whole curl operation won't fail or even report  an
              error  clearly. Using -v will get a warning displayed,
              but that is the only visible feedback  you  get  about
              this possibly lethal situation.

              If  this option is used several times, the last speci‐
              fied file name will be used.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the  given
              offset.  The given offset is the exact number of bytes
              that will be skipped counted from the beginning of the
              source  file  before it is transferred to the destina‐
              tion.  If used with uploads, the  ftp  server  command
              SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use  "-C  -"  to  tell  curl to automatically find out
              where/how to resume the transfer.  It  then  uses  the
              given output/input files to figure that out.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will
              create  the  necessary  local  directory  hierarchy as
              needed. This option creates the  dirs  mentioned  with
              the  -o option, nothing else. If the -o file name uses
              no dir or if the dirs it mentions  already  exist,  no
              dir will be created.

              To  create  remote  directories  when  using  FTP, try
              --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
              (OS/390).

              If  this  option  is used several times, the following
              occurrences make no difference.

       -d/--data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST  request  to
              the  HTTP  server,  in  a way that can emulate as if a
              user has filled in a HTML form and pressed the  submit
              button.  Note  that the data is sent exactly as speci‐
              fied with no extra processing (with all  newlines  cut
              off).   The data is expected to be "url-encoded". This
              will cause curl to pass the data to the  server  using
              the   content-type  application/x-www-form-urlencoded.
              Compare to -F/--form. If this option is used more than
              once  on the same command line, the data pieces speci‐
              fied will be merged together with a separating  &-let‐
              ter. Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy' would
              generate   a    post    chunk    that    looks    like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If  you  start  the  data  with the letter @, the rest
              should be a file name to read the data from, or  -  if
              you  want  curl to read the data from stdin.  The con‐
              tents of the file must already be url-encoded.  Multi‐
              ple  files  can also be specified. Posting data from a
              file named 'foobar' would thus  be  done  with  --data
              @foobar".

              To post data purely binary, you should instead use the
              --data-binary option.

              -d/--data is the same as --data-ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the ones follow‐
              ing the first will append data.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This is an alias for the -d/--data option.

              If this option is used several times, the ones follow‐
              ing the first will append data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data in a similar manner as  --data-
              ascii does, although when using this option the entire
              context of the posted data is kept as-is. If you  want
              to  post a binary file without the strip-newlines fea‐
              ture of the --data-ascii option, this is for you.

              If this option is used several times, the ones follow‐
              ing the first will append data.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set  LEVEL  to  tell  the server what it is allowed to
              delegate when it comes to user credentials. Used  with
              GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates  if  and  only  if the OK-AS-DELEGATE
                     flag is set in  the  Kerberos  service  ticket,
                     which is a matter of realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP)  Enables  HTTP Digest authentication. This is a
              authentication that prevents the password  from  being
              sent over the wire in clear text. Use this in combina‐
              tion with the normal -u/--user option to set user name
              and   password.   See  also  --ntlm,  --negotiate  and
              --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  following
              occurrences make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable the use of the EPRT and
              LPRT commands when doing active  FTP  transfers.  Curl
              will  normally  always first attempt to use EPRT, then
              LPRT before using PORT, but with this option, it  will
              use  PORT  right away. EPRT and LPRT are extensions to
              the original FTP protocol, may not work on all servers
              but enable more functionality in a better way than the
              traditional PORT command.

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              will toggle this on/off.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command
              when doing passive FTP transfers. Curl  will  normally
              always first attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with
              this option, it will not try using EPSV.

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              will toggle this on/off.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store the
              headers that a HTTP site sends to  you.  Cookies  from
              the headers could then be read in a second curl invoke
              by using the -b/--cookie option!  The  -c/--cookie-jar
              option is however a better way to store cookies.

              When  used  on  FTP, the ftp server response lines are
              considered being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  "Referer  Page" information to the
              HTTP server. This can also be set with the -H/--header
              flag  of course.  When used with -L/--location you can
              append ";auto" to the --referer URL to make curl auto‐
              matically set the previous URL when it follows a Loca‐
              tion: header. The ";auto" string can  be  used  alone,
              even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select the OpenSSL crypto engine  to  use  for  cipher
              operations.  Use  --engine  list  to  print  a list of
              build-time supported engines. Note that  not  all  (or
              none) of the engines may be available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC  OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables,
              using the names the  -w  option  supports,  to  easier
              allow  extraction  of  useful information after having
              run curl.

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              will toggle this on/off.

       --egd-file <file>
              (HTTPS) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering
              Daemon socket. The socket is used to seed  the  random
              engine for SSL connections. See also the --random-file
              option.

       -E/--cert <certificate[:password]>
              (HTTPS) Tells curl to use  the  specified  certificate
              file  when  getting a file with HTTPS. The certificate
              must be in PEM format.  If the optional password isn't
              specified,  it  will  be  queried for on the terminal.
              Note that this certificate is the private key and  the
              private certificate concatenated!

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate  type  the  provided
              certificate  is  in.  PEM,  DER and ENG are recognized
              types.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (HTTPS)  Tells  curl  to use the specified certificate
              file to verify the peer. The file may contain multiple
              CA  certificates.  The  certificate(s)  must be in PEM
              format.

              curl  recognizes  the   environment   variable   named
              'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'  if  that  is set, and uses the given
              path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option  over‐
              rides that variable.

              The  windows  version  of curl will automatically look
              for a CA certs file named ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´, either
              in  the  same directory as curl.exe, or in the Current
              Working Directory, or in any folder along your PATH.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (HTTPS)  Tells  curl  to use the specified certificate
              directory to verify the peer. The certificates must be
              in  PEM  format, and the directory must have been pro‐
              cessed  using  the  c_rehash  utility  supplied   with
              openssl.  Using  --capath can allow curl to make https
              connections much more efficiently than using  --cacert
              if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       -f/--fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no  output  at  all)  on  server
              errors. This is mostly done like this to better enable
              scripts etc to better deal with  failed  attempts.  In
              normal  cases  when  a  HTTP server fails to deliver a
              document, it  returns  an  HTML  document  stating  so
              (which  often  also describes why and more). This flag
              will prevent curl  from  outputting  that  and  return
              error 22.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable silent failure.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after
              user name and password has been provided, this data is
              sent off using the ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will override
              the previous use.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP)  When  an  FTP  URL/operation  uses  a path that
              doesn't currently exist on the  server,  the  standard
              behavior  of  curl is to fail. Using this option, curl
              will instead attempt to create missing directories.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable directory creation.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP)  Control  what method curl should use to reach a
              file on a FTP(S) server. The method argument should be
              one of the following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl  does a single CWD operation for each path
                     part in the given  URL.  For  deep  hierarchies
                     this  means  very  many  commands.  This is how
                     RFC1738 says it should be  done.  This  is  the
                     default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD  at all. curl will do SIZE,
                     RETR, STOR etc and give  a  full  path  to  the
                     server  for  all  these  commands.  This is the
                     fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full  target  direc‐
                     tory  and  then operates on the file "normally"
                     (like in the multicwd case). This  is  somewhat
                     more standards compliant than 'nocwd' but with‐
                     out the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use PASV when transferring. PASV is the internal
              default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override  a  previous  --ftp-port  option.  (Added  in
              7.11.0)

              If  this  option  is used several times, the following
              occurrences make no difference.


       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER  and  PASS  com‐
              mands  fails,  send  this command.  When connecting to
              Tumbleweed's Secure Transport server over FTPS using a
              client  certificate,  using  "SITE AUTH" will tell the
              server to retrieve the username from the  certificate.
              (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP)  Tell  curl to not use the IP address the server
              suggests in its response to curl's PASV  command  when
              curl  connects  the data connection. Instead curl will
              re-use the same IP address it  already  uses  for  the
              control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This  option  has  no  effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is
              used instead of PASV.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              use the server's suggested address.

       --ftp-ssl
              (FTP)  Try  to  use  SSL/TLS  for  the FTP connection.
              Reverts to  a  non-secure  connection  if  the  server
              doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.11.0)

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable this.

       --ftp-ssl-reqd
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP connection.   Termi‐
              nates  the  connection  if  the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.15.5)

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable this.

       -F/--form <name=content>
              (HTTP)  This  lets  curl  emulate  a filled in form in
              which a user  has  pressed  the  submit  button.  This
              causes curl to POST data using the Content-Type multi‐
              part/form-data  according  to  RFC1867.  This  enables
              uploading  of binary files etc. To force the 'content'
              part to be a file, prefix the  file  name  with  an  @
              sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix
              the file  name  with  the  letter  <.  The  difference
              between  @  and  <  is  then  that  @ makes a file get
              attached in the post as a file  upload,  while  the  <
              makes  a text field and just get the contents for that
              text field from a file.

              Example, to send your password  file  to  the  server,
              where  'password'  is  the  name  of the form-field to
              which /etc/passwd will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read the file's content from  stdin  instead  of  a
              file,  use  - where the file name should've been. This
              goes for both @ and < constructs.

              You can also tell curl what  Content-Type  to  use  by
              using 'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You  can  also  explicitly change the name field of an
              file upload part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value  string
              for the named parameter is used literally. Leading '@'
              and '<' characters, and the  ';type='  string  in  the
              value  have no special meaning. Use this in preference
              to --form if there's any possibility that  the  string
              value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features
              of --form.

       -g/--globoff
              This option switches off the  "URL  globbing  parser".
              When  you  set  this option, you can specify URLs that
              contain the letters {}[]  without  having  them  being
              interpreted  by  curl  itself. Note that these letters
              are not normal legal URL contents but they  should  be
              encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G/--get
              When  used,  this  option will make all data specified
              with -d/--data or --data-binary to be used in  a  HTTP
              GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise
              would be used. The data will be appended  to  the  URL
              with a '?'  separator.

              If  used  in  combination  with -I, the POST data will
              instead be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  following
              occurrences make no difference.

       -h/--help
              Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
              (HTTP)  Extra  header  to use when getting a web page.
              You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that
              if  you  should  add a custom header that has the same
              name as one of the internal ones curl would use,  your
              externally  set  header  will  be  used instead of the
              internal one. This allows you to  make  even  trickier
              stuff  than  curl  would  normally  do. You should not
              replace internally set headers  without  knowing  per‐
              fectly  well  what you're doing. Replacing an internal
              header with one without content on the right  side  of
              the colon will prevent that header from appearing.

              curl  will  make sure that each header you add/replace
              get sent with the  proper  end  of  line  marker,  you
              should  thus not add that as a part of the header con‐
              tent: do not add newlines  or  carriage  returns  they
              will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A/--user-agent and -e/--referer options.

              This   option   can   be   used   multiple   times  to
              add/replace/remove multiple headers.

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header. This is  par‐
              ticularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which
              will report incorrect Content-Length for files  larger
              than 2 gigabytes.

       -i/--include
              (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header  in  the output. The
              HTTP-header includes things like server-name, date  of
              the document, HTTP-version and more...

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable header include.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface.  You
              can  enter interface name, IP address or host name. An
              example could look like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       -I/--head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE)  Fetch  the  HTTP-header  only!  HTTP-
              servers feature the command HEAD which  this  uses  to
              get nothing but the header of a document. When used on
              a FTP or FILE file, curl displays the  file  size  and
              last modification time only.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable header only.

       -j/--junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a  given
              file,  this  option  will make it discard all "session
              cookies". This will basically have the same effect  as
              if  a  new session is started. Typical browsers always
              discard session cookies when they're closed down.

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              will toggle this on/off.

       -k/--insecure
              (SSL)  This  option  explicitly allows curl to perform
              "insecure" SSL connections and transfers. All SSL con‐
              nections  are attempted to be made secure by using the
              CA certificate bundle installed by default. This makes
              all  connections  considered "insecure" to fail unless
              -k/--insecure is used.

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  time  will
              again disable it.

       --key <key>
              (SSL)  Private  key  file  name. Allows you to provide
              your private key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL)  Private  key file type. Specify which type your
              --key provided private key is. DER, PEM  and  ENG  are
              supported.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --krb4 <level>
              (FTP) Enable kerberos4  authentication  and  use.  The
              level  must  be  entered and should be one of 'clear',
              'safe', 'confidential' or 'private'. Should you use  a
              level that is not one of these, 'private' will instead
              be used.

              This option requires that the library was  built  with
              kerberos4  support.  This  is  not  very  common.  Use
              -V/--version to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       -K/--config <config file>
              Specify which config file to read curl arguments from.
              The config file is a text file in which  command  line
              arguments can be written which then will be used as if
              they were written on the actual command line.  Options
              and  their  parameters  must  be specified on the same
              config file line. If the parameter is to contain white
              spaces,  the parameter must be enclosed within quotes.
              If the first column of a config line is a '#'  charac‐
              ter,  the  rest  of the line will be treated as a com‐
              ment.

              Specify the filename as '-' to make curl read the file
              from stdin.

              Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config
              file, you need to specify it using the  --url  option,
              and not by simply writing the URL on its own line. So,
              it could look similar to this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              This option can be used multiple times.

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless  -q  is  used)
              checks for a default config file and uses it if found.
              The default config file is checked for in the  follow‐
              ing places in this order:

              1)  curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks
              for the CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment  vari‐
              ables.  Failing  that, it uses getpwuid() on unix-like
              systems (which returns the home dir given the  current
              user  in  your system). On Windows, it then checks for
              the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the  '%USER‐
              PROFILE%0lication Data'.

              2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home
              dir, it checks for one in the same dir the  executable
              curl  is  placed. On unix-like systems, it will simply
              try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate  you  want  curl  to
              use. This feature is useful if you have a limited pipe
              and you'd like your transfer not use your entire band‐
              width.

              The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a
              suffix is appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K'  will  count
              the  number as kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes
              while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes.  Examples:  200K,
              3m and 1G.

              If  you  are  also  using the -Y/--speed-limit option,
              that option will take precedence and might cripple the
              rate-limiting  slightly,  to  help  keeping the speed-
              limit logic working.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       -l/--list-only
              (FTP)  When  listing  an  FTP  directory,  this switch
              forces a name-only view.   Especially  useful  if  you
              want to machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory
              since the normal directory view doesn't use a standard
              look or format.

              This  option  causes  an  FTP NLST command to be sent.
              Some FTP servers list only files in their response  to
              NLST;  they do not include subdirectories and symbolic
              links.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable list only.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set  a  prefered number or range of local port numbers
              to use for the connection(s).  Note that port  numbers
              by  nature  is  a scarce resource that will be busy at
              times so setting this range to  something  too  narrow
              might  cause  unnecessary  connection  setup failures.
              (Added in 7.15.2)

       -L/--location
              (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the  requested
              page has moved to a different location (indicated with
              a Location: header  and  a  3XX  response  code)  this
              option  will  make  curl  redo  the request on the new
              place.  If  used   together   with   -i/--include   or
              -I/--head,  headers  from  all requested pages will be
              shown. When authentication is used,  curl  only  sends
              its  credentials  to  the  initial host. If a redirect
              takes curl to a different host, it won't  be  able  to
              intercept  the  user+password.  See  also  --location-
              trusted on how to  change  this.  You  can  limit  the
              amount  of  redirects  to  follow  by using the --max-
              redirs option.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable location following.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  Like -L/--location, but will allow send‐
              ing the name + password to all hosts that the site may
              redirect  to. This may or may not introduce a security
              breach if the site redirects you do a  site  to  which
              you'll  send your authentication info (which is plain‐
              text in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable location following.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to down‐
              load. If the file requested is larger than this value,
              the  transfer will not start and curl will return with
              exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to down‐
              load,  and  for  such  files this option has no effect
              even if the file transfer ends up  being  larger  than
              this  given  limit.  This  concerns  both FTP and HTTP
              transfers.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole oper‐
              ation  to  take.   This  is useful for preventing your
              batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow networks
              or  links  going down.  See also the --connect-timeout
              option.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       -M/--manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -n/--netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc file in the user's home
              directory for login name and password. This  is  typi‐
              cally  used  for  ftp on unix. If used with http, curl
              will  enable  user  authentication.  See  netrc(4)  or
              ftp(1)  for  details on the file format. Curl will not
              complain if that file hasn't the right permissions (it
              should  not be world nor group readable). The environ‐
              ment variable "HOME" is used to find the  home  direc‐
              tory.

              A  quick  and  very  simple  example of how to setup a
              .netrc  to  allow  curl  to   ftp   to   the   machine
              host.domain.com  with  user name 'myself' and password
              'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable netrc usage.

       --netrc-optional
              Very  similar  to  --netrc,  but this option makes the
              .netrc usage optional and not mandatory as the --netrc
              does.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP)  Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-
              Negotiate method was designed by Microsoft and is used
              in  their web applications. It is primarily meant as a
              support for Kerberos5 authentication but may  be  also
              used  along  with  another authentication methods. For
              more information see IETF  draft  draft-brezak-spnego-
              http-04.txt.

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authen‐
              tication, then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This option requires that the library was  built  with
              GSSAPI support. This is not very common. Use -V/--ver‐
              sion to see if your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide  a  fake
              -u/--user  option  to activate the authentication code
              properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user  name
              and password from the -u option aren't actually used.

              If  this  option  is used several times, the following
              occurrences make no difference.

       -N/--no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal
              work  situations,  curl  will  use a standard buffered
              output stream that will have the effect that  it  will
              output  the  data  in  chunks, not necessarily exactly
              when the data arrives.  Using this option will disable
              that buffering.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              switch on buffering.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authenti‐
              cation method was designed by Microsoft and is used by
              IIS  web  servers.  It  is  a  proprietary   protocol,
              reversed  engineered  by clever people and implemented
              in curl based on their efforts. This kind of  behavior
              should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to  a  public  and  documented
              authentication method instead. Such as Digest.

              If  you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentica‐
              tion, then use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires that the library was  built  with
              SSL support. Use -V/--version to see if your curl sup‐
              ports NTLM.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  following
              occurrences make no difference.

       -o/--output <file>
              Write  output  to <file> instead of stdout. If you are
              using {} or [] to fetch multiple  documents,  you  can
              use  '#' followed by a number in the <file> specifier.
              That variable will be replaced with the current string
              for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as you have num‐
              ber of URLs.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local
              directories dynamically.

       -O/--remote-name
              Write  output  to  a  local file named like the remote
              file we get. (Only the file part of the remote file is
              used, the path is cut off.)

              The  remote  file  name to use for saving is extracted
              from the given URL, nothing else.

              You may use this option as many times as you have num‐
              ber of URLs.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL) Pass phrase for the private key

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a  suitable  authentication  method
              when  communicating  with  the  given proxy. This will
              cause an extra request/response round-trip. (Added  in
              7.13.2)

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable the proxy use-any authentication.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when  com‐
              municating  with  the  given  proxy.  Use  --basic for
              enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic  is  the
              default authentication method curl uses with proxies.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable proxy HTTP Basic authentication.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when com‐
              municating  with  the  given  proxy.  Use --digest for
              enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable proxy HTTP Digest.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when
              communicating with the given  proxy.  Use  --negotiate
              for enabling HTTP Negotiate with a remote host.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable proxy HTTP Negotiate.


       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when commu‐
              nicating with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling
              NTLM with a remote host.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable proxy HTTP NTLM.

       -p/--proxytunnel
              When  an  HTTP proxy is used (-x/--proxy), this option
              will cause non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel
              through  the  proxy  instead  of merely using it to do
              HTTP-like operations. The tunnel approach is made with
              the  HTTP  proxy CONNECT request and requires that the
              proxy allows direct connect to the remote port  number
              curl wants to tunnel through to.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable proxy tunnel.

       -P/--ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the initiator/listener roles when  con‐
              necting  with ftp. This switch makes Curl use the PORT
              command instead of PASV. In practice, PORT  tells  the
              server  to  connect  to the client's specified address
              and port, while PASV asks the server for an ip address
              and port to connect to. <address> should be one of:

              interface
                     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify  which  interface's IP
                     address you want to use  (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify exact IP number

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify machine

              -      make curl pick the  same  IP  address  that  is
                     already used for the control connection

       If  this  option  is used several times, the last one will be
       used. Disable the use of PORT with  --ftp-pasv.  Disable  the
       attempt  to  use  the  EPRT  command instead of PORT by using
       --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on  the  command  line,
              the  curlrc config file will not be read and used. See
              the -K/--config for details on the default config file
              search path.

       -Q/--quote <command>
              (FTP)  Send  an  arbitrary  command  to the remote FTP
              server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer is
              taking place (just after the initial PWD command to be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful
              transfer,  prefix  them  with a dash '-'. To make com‐
              mands get  sent  after  libcurl  has  changed  working
              directory, just before the transfer command(s), prefix
              the command with '+'. You may specify  any  amount  of
              commands. If the server returns failure for one of the
              commands, the entire operation will  be  aborted.  You
              must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC959
              defines.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --random-file <file>
              (HTTPS) Specify the path name to file containing  what
              will be considered as random data. The data is used to
              seed the random engine for SSL connections.  See  also
              the --egd-file option.

       -r/--range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial docu‐
              ment) from a HTTP/1.1 or FTP  server.  Ranges  can  be
              specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies  the  bytes  from  offset 9500 and
                        forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies    two    separate    100    bytes
                        ranges(*)(H)

       (*)  =  NOTE  that this will cause the server to reply with a
       multipart response!

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1  servers  do  not
       have  this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a
       range, you'll instead get the whole document.

       FTP range downloads only support the  simple  syntax  'start-
       stop'  (optionally  with  one  of  the  numbers  omitted). It
       depends on the non-RFC command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last  one  will  be
       used.

       -R/--remote-time
              When  used,  this  will make libcurl attempt to figure
              out the timestamp of the remote file, and if  that  is
              available make the local file get that same timestamp.

              If this option is used twice, the second time disables
              this again.

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when  curl  tries  to
              perform a transfer, it will retry this number of times
              before giving up. Setting the number to 0  makes  curl
              do  no retries (which is the default). Transient error
              means either: a timeout, an FTP 5xx response  code  or
              an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When  curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first
              wait one second and then for all  forthcoming  retries
              it  will  double  the waiting time until it reaches 10
              minutes which then will be the delay between the  rest
              of  the  retries.   By using --retry-delay you disable
              this exponential backoff algorithm. See also  --retry-
              max-time  to limit the total time allowed for retries.
              (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occur‐
              rence decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time between each retry
              when a transfer has failed with a transient error  (it
              changes  the  default  backoff  time algorithm between
              retries). This option is only interesting  if  --retry
              is  also  used.  Setting  this delay to zero will make
              curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occur‐
              rence decide the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The  retry  timer  is  reset before the first transfer
              attempt. Retries will be done as usual  (see  --retry)
              as  long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit.
              Notice that if the timer hasn't reached the limit, the
              request will be made and while performing, it may take
              longer than this given time period. To limit a  single
              request´s  maximum  time, use -m/--max-time.  Set this
              option to zero  to  not  timeout  retries.  (Added  in
              7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occur‐
              rence decide the amount.

       -s/--silent
              Silent mode. Don't show progress meter or  error  mes‐
              sages.  Makes Curl mute.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable silent mode.

       -S/--show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show error message  if
              it fails.

              If  this  option  is used twice, the second will again
              disable show error.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number  is
              not  specified,  it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in
              7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,
              as they are mutually exclusive.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy. If the port number  is
              not  specified,  it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in
              7.11.1)

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,
              as they are mutually exclusive.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used. (This option was previously wrongly doc‐
              umented   and  used  as  --socks  without  the  number
              appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not  work  with
              IPv6, FTPS or LDAP.

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect  all  writes  to stderr to the specified file
              instead. If the file  name  is  a  plain  '-',  it  is
              instead  written  to  stdout. This option has no point
              when you're using  a  shell  with  decent  redirecting
              capabilities.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn   on   the   TCP_NODELAY    option.    See    the
              curl_easy_setopt(3)  man  page  for details about this
              option. (Added in 7.11.2)

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              toggles this on/off.

       -t/--telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options
              are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T/--upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the  remote
              URL.  If  there  is no file part in the specified URL,
              Curl will append the local file name.  NOTE  that  you
              must  use a trailing / on the last directory to really
              prove to Curl that there is no file name or curl  will
              think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely  cause  the  upload
              operation  to  fail.  If  this  is  used  on a http(s)
              server, the PUT command will be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single  dash)  to  use  stdin
              instead of a given file.

              You  can  specify  one  -T for each URL on the command
              line. Each -T + URL pair specifies what to upload  and
              to  where.  curl  also  supports  "globbing" of the -T
              argument, meaning that you can upload  multiple  files
              to  a  single URL by using the same URL globbing style
              supported in the URL, like this:

              curl     -T     "{file1,file2}"     http://www.upload‐
              tothissite.com

              or even

              curl    -T    "img[1-1000].png"   ftp://ftp.picturema‐
              nia.com/upload/

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing
              data,  including descriptive information, to the given
              output file. Use "-" as filename to  have  the  output
              sent to stdout.

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing
              data,  including descriptive information, to the given
              output file. Use "-" as filename to  have  the  output
              sent to stdout.

              This  is  very  similar to --trace, but leaves out the
              hex part and only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It
              makes  smaller output that might be easier to read for
              untrained humans.

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends  a  time  stamp to each trace or verbose line
              that curl displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

              If this option is used several times, each  occurrence
              will toggle it on/off.

       -u/--user <user:password>
              Specify  user and password to use for server authenti‐
              cation. Overrides -n/--netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl  binary  and  do  NTLM
              autentication,  you can force curl to pick up the user
              name and password  from  your  environment  by  simply
              specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the last one
              will be used.

       -U/--proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use for proxy authentica‐
              tion.

              If  you  use  an  SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM
              autentication, you can force curl to pick up the  user
              name  and  password  from  your  environment by simply
              specifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several  times,  the  last  one
              will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify  a  URL  to fetch. This option is mostly handy
              when you want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  con‐
              trol where this URL is written, use the -o/--output or
              the -O/--remote-name options.

       -v/--verbose
              Makes  the  fetching  more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly
              usable  for  debugging.  Lines starting with '>' means
              "header data" sent by curl, '<'  means  "header  data"
              received  by  curl  that is hidden in normal cases and
              lines starting with '*' means additional info provided
              by curl.

              Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output,
              -i/--include might be option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give you enough
              details,   consider  using  --trace  or  --trace-ascii
              instead.

              If this option is used twice, the  second  will  again
              disable verbose.

       -V/--version
              Displays  information  about curl and the libcurl ver‐
              sion it uses.

              The first line includes  the  full  version  of  curl,
              libcurl  and other 3rd party libraries linked with the
              executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:")  shows  all
              protocols that libcurl reports to support.

              The  third  line  (starts with "Features:") shows spe‐
              cific features libcurl  reports  to  offer.  Available
              features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for ftp is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic  decompression  of  compressed  files
                     over HTTP is supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This
                     enables  more  error-tracking and memory debug‐
                     ging etc. For curl-developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers  of  large  files,
                     files larger than 2GB.

              IDN    This  curl  supports IDN - international domain
                     names.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM  and  set  a
                     blank  user  name,  curl will authenticate with
                     your current user and password.

       -w/--write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout  after  a  completed
              and  successful operation. The format is a string that
              may contain plain text mixed with any number of  vari‐
              ables. The string can be specified as "string", to get
              read from a particular file you specify it "@filename"
              and  to  tell  curl  to read the format from stdin you
              write "@-".

              The variables present in the  output  format  will  be
              substituted by the value or text that curl thinks fit,
              as described below. All variables are  specified  like
              %{variable_name}  and  to  output  a normal % you just
              write them like %%. You can output a newline by  using
              \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE:   The  %-letter  is  a  special  letter  in  the
              win32-environment, where all occurrences of % must  be
              doubled when using this option.

              Available variables are at this point:

              url_effective  The  URL that was fetched last. This is
                             mostly meaningful if you've  told  curl
                             to follow location: headers.

              http_code      The  numerical  code  that was found in
                             the last retrieved HTTP(S) page.

              http_connect   The numerical code that  was  found  in
                             the  last  response (from a proxy) to a
                             curl CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              time_total     The total time, in  seconds,  that  the
                             full operation lasted. The time will be
                             displayed with millisecond resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from  the
                             start until the name resolving was com‐
                             pleted.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from  the
                             start  until  the connect to the remote
                             host (or proxy) was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from  the
                             start  until  the file transfer is just
                             about to begin. This includes all  pre-
                             transfer commands and negotiations that
                             are specific to the  particular  proto‐
                             col(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The  time,  in seconds, it took for all
              
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