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GROPS(1)                                                    GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [-glmv] [-b n] [-c n] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p papersize]
             [-P prologue] [-w n] [files ...]

       It is possible to have  whitespace  between  a  command  line
       option and its parameter.

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Nor‐
       mally grops should be invoked by using the groff command with
       a  -Tps  option.   (Actually, this is the default for groff.)
       If no files are given, grops reads  the  standard  input.   A
       filename  of  - also causes grops to read the standard input.
       PostScript output is written to the  standard  output.   When
       grops  is  run  by groff options can be passed to grops using
       groff's -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a  valid  document  structure
       (conforming to the Document Structuring Convention) if called
       with multiple file arguments.   To  print  such  concatenated
       output  it  is  necessary  to  deactivate DSC handling in the
       printing program or previewer.  See section FONT INSTALLATION
       below for a guide how to install fonts for grops.

       -bn    Provide  workarounds for older printers, broken spool‐
              ers, and previewers.  Normally grops  produces  output
              at  PostScript  LanguageLevel  2  that conforms to the
              Document Structuring Conventions  version  3.0.   Some
              older  printers, spoolers, and previewers can't handle
              such output.  The value of n controls what grops  does
              to  make  its  output  acceptable to such programs.  A
              value of 0 causes grops not to employ any workarounds.

              Add 1 if no  %%BeginDocumentSetup  and  %%EndDocument‐
              Setup comments should be generated; this is needed for
              early versions of TranScript that get confused by any‐
              thing  between  the  %%EndProlog comment and the first
              %%Page comment.

              Add 2 if lines in included  files  beginning  with  %!
              should  be  stripped  out;  this  is  needed for Sun's
              pageview previewer.

              Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer  and  %%EndProlog  comments
              should  be  stripped  out  of  included files; this is
              needed for spoolers that don't understand the %%Begin‐
              Document and %%EndDocument comments.

              Add  8  if  the  first  line  of the PostScript output
              should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather  than  %!PS-Adobe-3.0;
              this  is  needed  when  using  Sun's  Newsprint with a
              printer that requires page reversal.

              Add 16 if no media size information should be included
              in  the document (this is, neither use %%DocumentMedia
              nor the setpagedevice PostScript command).   This  was
              the  behaviour of groff version 1.18.1 and earlier; it
              is needed for older printers  which  don't  understand
              PostScript  LanguageLevel  2.  It is also necessary if
              the output is further processed to get an encapsulated
              PS (EPS) file – see below.

              The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value
              is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search  path  for
              prologue,  font, and device description files; name is
              the name of the device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This generates PostScript code
              that  guesses  the  page length.  The guess is correct
              only if the imageable area is vertically  centered  on
              the  page.   This  option allows you to generate docu‐
              ments that can be  printed  both  on  letter  (8.5×11)
              paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This  option  may  be  used  to add a directory to the
              search path for files on the command  line  and  files
              named in \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file' escapes.  The
              search path is initialized with the current directory.
              This  option  may  be  specified  more  than once; the
              directories are then searched in the  order  specified
              (but  before  the  current directory).  If you want to
              make the current directory be read before other direc‐
              tories, add -I. at the appropriate place.

              No  directory  search  is  performed for files with an
              absolute file name.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set physical dimension of output medium.   This  over‐
              rides  the papersize, paperlength, and paperwidth com‐
              mands in the DESC file; it accepts the same  arguments
              as  the  papersize  command.   See  groff_font (5) for

              Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as  the
              prologue  instead  of  the  default prologue file pro‐
              logue.  This option overrides the environment variable

       -wn    Lines  should  be  drawn  using a thickness of n thou‐
              sandths of an em.  If this option is  not  given,  the
              line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       The  input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).
       This is described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description  files  for  the
       device  used  must  meet certain requirements: The resolution
       must be an integer multiple of 72 times the  sizescale.   The
       ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The  device description file must contain a valid paper size;
       see groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the  font  is  psname.
       It may also contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using
       the encoding described in enc_file; this file should  consist
       of a sequence of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where  pschar  is  the  PostScript name of the character, and
       code is its position in the encoding expressed as  a  decimal
       integer;  valid  values  are  in  the  range 0 to 255.  Lines
       starting with # and blank lines are ignored.   The  code  for
       each  character given in the font file must correspond to the
       code for the character in encoding file, or to  the  code  in
       the  default  encoding for the font if the PostScript font is
       not to be reencoded.  This code  can  be  used  with  the  \N
       escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the
       font  file  must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths
       given in the font file must match  the  widths  used  in  the
       PostScript font.  grops assumes that a character with a groff
       name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page);  it  can
       make  use  of such a character to generate more efficient and
       compact PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript
       font,  not only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no
       encoding file specified) just defines the order of glyphs for
       the  first 256 characters; all other glyphs are accessed with
       additional encoding vectors which grops produces on the fly.

       grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts neces‐
       sary  to  print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA for‐
       mat.  Use pfbtops(1) to convert a Type 1 font in PFB  format.
       Any  downloadable  fonts  which  should,  when  required,  be
       included   by   grops   must   be   listed   in   the    file
       /usr/share/groff/1.21/font/devps/download;  this  should con‐
       sist of lines of the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font,  and  filename
       is  the name of the file containing the font; lines beginning
       with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may  be  separated
       by  tabs  or  spaces; filename is searched for using the same
       mechanism that is used for  groff  font  metric  files.   The
       download  file  itself is also searched for using this mecha‐
       nism; currently, only the first found file in the  font  path
       is used.

       If  the file containing a downloadable font or imported docu‐
       ment conforms to the Adobe Document Structuring  Conventions,
       then  grops interprets any comments in the files sufficiently
       to ensure that its own output is conforming.   It  also  sup‐
       plies  any needed font resources that are listed in the down‐
       load file as well as any needed file resources.  It  is  also
       able  to  handle  inter-resource  dependencies.  For example,
       suppose that you have a downloadable  font  called  Garamond,
       and  also  a  downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which
       depends on Garamond (typically it would be  defined  to  copy
       Garamond's  font  dictionary, and change the PaintType), then
       it is necessary for Garamond to appear  before  Garamond-Out‐
       line in the PostScript document.  grops handles this automat‐
       ically provided that the downloadable font file for Garamond-
       Outline  indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the
       Document Structuring Conventions, for  example  by  beginning
       with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to
       be listed in the download file.  A downloadable  font  should
       not  include  its  own  name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources

       grops  does  not  interpret  %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The
       %%DocumentNeededResources,       %%DocumentSuppliedResources,
       %%IncludeResource, %%BeginResource,  and  %%EndResource  com‐
       ments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%Document‐
       SuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont, and %%EndFont com‐
       ments) should be used.

       In  the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI
       mounted at font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into
       families  A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each
       of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member  of  a

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol
       font, and SS,  containing  slanted  lowercase  Greek  letters
       taken  from PS Symbol.  Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD, and
       a reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing  in
       the  opposite direction) is available as ZDR; most characters
       in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for colors  defined
       in  the  `rgb' color space setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and
       `cmyk' setcmykcolor,  and  for  `gray'  setgray.   Note  that
       setcmykcolor is a PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus
       not available on some older printers.

       grops understands various X commands produced  using  the  \X
       escape  sequence;  grops  only interprets commands that begin
       with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This executes the  arbitrary  PostScript  commands  in
              code.  The PostScript currentpoint is set to the posi‐
              tion of the \X command  before  executing  code.   The
              origin  is  at  the  top  left corner of the page, and
              y coordinates increase down the page.  A  procedure  u
              is defined that converts groff units to the coordinate
              system in effect (provided the user doesn't change the
              scale).  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              draws  a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make
              changes to the graphics state, but any changes persist
              only  to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing
              the definitions specified by the def and  mdef  is  on
              top  of the dictionary stack.  If your code adds defi‐
              nitions to this dictionary, you should allocate  space
              for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions persist
              only until the end of the page.  If  you  use  the  \Y
              escape  sequence  with an argument that names a macro,
              code can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw  a  horizontal  line  one  inch
              long.   Note  the  single  backslash before `nx' – the
              only reason to use a number  register  while  defining
              the macro `y' is to convert a user-specified dimension
              `1i' to internal groff units which are  in  turn  con‐
              verted to PS units with the u procedure.

              grops wraps user-specified PostScript code into a dic‐
              tionary, nothing  more.   In  particular,  it  doesn't
              start and end the inserted code with save and restore,
              respectively.  This must be supplied by the  user,  if

       \X'ps: file name'
              This  is  the same as the exec command except that the
              PostScript code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the
              prologue.   There should be at most one definition per
              \X command.  Long definitions can be split  over  sev‐
              eral  \X  commands;  all the code arguments are simply
              joined together separated by  newlines.   The  defini‐
              tions  are  placed  in a dictionary which is automati‐
              cally pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec com‐
              mand  is  executed.  If you use the \Y escape sequence
              with an argument that names a macro, code  can  extend
              over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may contain up to n defini‐
              tions.  grops needs to know how many definitions  code
              contains  so that it can create an appropriately sized
              PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The  arguments
              llx,  lly,  urx,  and ury give the bounding box of the
              graphic in the default PostScript  coordinate  system;
              they should all be integers; llx and lly are the x and
              y coordinates of the lower left corner of the graphic;
              urx  and  ury are the x and y coordinates of the upper
              right corner of the  graphic;  width  and  height  are
              integers  that  give  the  desired width and height in
              groff units of the graphic.

              The graphic is scaled so that it has  this  width  and
              height and translated so that the lower left corner of
              the graphic is located at the position associated with
              \X  command.   If the height argument is omitted it is
              scaled uniformly in the x and y directions so that  it
              has the specified width.

              Note  that  the  contents  of  the  \X command are not
              interpreted  by  troff;  so  vertical  space  for  the
              graphic  is not automatically added, and the width and
              height arguments are  not  allowed  to  have  attached
              scaling indicators.

              If  the  PostScript file complies with the Adobe Docu‐
              ment   Structuring   Conventions   and   contains    a
              %%BoundingBox  comment,  then  the bounding box can be
              automatically extracted from within groff by using the
              psbb request.

              See groff_tmac(5) for a description of the PSPIC macro
              which provides a convenient high-level  interface  for
              inclusion of PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No  output  is generated for text and drawing commands
              that are bracketed with these \X commands.  These com‐
              mands  are  intended for use when output from troff is
              previewed before being processed with  grops;  if  the
              previewer  is  unable to display certain characters or
              other constructs, then other substitute characters  or
              constructs  can  be  used for previewing by bracketing
              them with these \X commands.

              For example, gxditview is not able to display a proper
              \(em  character  because the standard X11 fonts do not
              provide it; this problem can be overcome by  executing
              the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In  this case, gxditview is unable to display the \(em
              character and draws the line, whereas grops prints the
              \(em  character  and  ignores  the  line (this code is
              already in file Xps.tmac which is loaded if a document
              intended for grops is previewed with gxditview).

       If  a  PostScript  procedure  BPhook  has  been defined via a
       `ps: def' or `ps: mdef' device command, it is executed at the
       beginning  of every page (before anything is drawn or written
       by groff).  For example, to underlay the page  contents  with
       the word `DRAFT' in light gray, you might use

              .de XX
              ps: def
              { gsave .9 setgray clippath pathbbox exch 2 copy
                .5 mul exch .5 mul translate atan rotate pop pop
                /NewCenturySchlbk-Roman findfont 200 scalefont setfont
                (DRAFT) dup stringwidth pop -.5 mul -70 moveto show
                grestore }
              .devicem XX

       Or,  to  cause  lines  and  polygons  to be drawn with square
       linecaps and mitered linejoins instead of the round  linecaps
       and linejoins normally used by grops, use

              .de XX
              ps: def
              /BPhook { 2 setlinecap 0 setlinejoin } def
              .devicem XX

       (square linecaps, as opposed to butt linecaps (0 setlinecap),
       give true corners in boxed tables even though the  lines  are
       drawn unconnected).

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the
       help of Ghostscript the following simple  script,  groff2eps,
       produces an encapsulated PS file.

              #! /bin/sh
              groff -P-b16 $1 >$
              gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- $ 2>$1.bbox
              cat $ \
              | sed -e "/^%%Orientation/r$1.bbox" \
                    -e "/^%!PS-Adobe-3.0/s/$/ EPSF-3.0/" >$1.eps
              rm $ $1.bbox

       Just say

              groff2eps foo

       to convert file foo to foo.eps.

   TrueType and other font formats
       TrueType  fonts  can be used with grops if converted first to
       Type 42 format, a special PostScript  wrapper  equivalent  to
       the  PFA  format  mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several
       different methods to generate a type42 wrapper  and  most  of
       them  involve  the  use  of  a PostScript interpreter such as
       Ghostscript – see gs(1).

       Yet, the easiest method involves the use of  the  application
       ttftot42(1).   This  program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1)
       to generate type42 font wrappers and  well-formed  AFM  files
       that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create appropri‐
       ate metric files.  The  resulting  font  wrappers  should  be
       added  to  the  download  file.   ttftot42 source code can be
       downloaded    from⟩.

       Another solution for creating type42 wrappers is to use Font‐
       Forge,  available   from   http://fontforge.sf.nethttp://⟩.  This font editor can convert most outline
       font formats.

       This section gives a summary of the  above  explanations;  it
       can  serve  as  a  step-by-step  font  installation guide for

        ·  Convert your font to something groff  understands.   This
           is  either  a  PostScript  Type 1 font in PFA format or a
           PostScript Type 42 font, together with an AFM file.

           The very first characters in a PFA file look like this:


           A PFB file has this also  in  the  first  line,  but  the
           string is preceded with some binary bytes.

           The  very  first  characters  in a Type 42 font file look
           like this:


           This is a wrapper format  for  TrueType  fonts.   Old  PS
           printers might not support it (this is, they don't have a
           built-in TrueType font interpreter).

           If your font is in PFB format (such fonts  normally  have
           `.pfb'  as  the  file  extension),  you might use groff's
           pfbtops(1) program to convert it to  PFA.   For  TrueType
           fonts,  try  ttftot42  or  fontforge.  For all other font
           formats use fontforge which can convert most outline font

        ·  Convert  the  AFM  file  to a groff font description file
           with the afmtodit(1) program.  An example call is

                  afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm textmap FBB

           which converts the metric file `Foo-Bar-Bold.afm' to  the
           groff  font `FBB'.  If you have a font family which comes
           with normal, bold, italic, and bold italic faces,  it  is
           recommended  to  use the letters R, B, I, and BI, respec‐
           tively, as postfixes in the  groff  font  names  to  make
           groff's  `.fam'  request  work.   An  example  is groff's
           built-in Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and
           the groff font names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.

        ·  Install  both  the  groff  font description files and the
           fonts in a `devps' subdirectory of the  font  path  which
           groff finds.  See the ENVIRONMENT section in the troff(1)
           man page which lists the actual value of the  font  path.
           Note  that  groff  doesn't use the AFM files (but it is a
           good idea to store them anyway).

        ·  Register all  fonts  which  must  be  downloaded  to  the
           printer  in  the  `devps/download'  file.  Only the first
           occurrence of this file in the font path is  read.   This
           means that you should copy the default `download' file to
           the first directory in your font path and add your  fonts
           there.   To continue the above example we assume that the
           PS font name for  Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa  is  `XY-Foo-Bar-Bold'
           (the  PS font name is stored in the internalname field in
           the `FBB' file), thus the following line should be  added
           to `download'.

                  XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa

       groff  versions 1.19.2 and earlier contain a slightly differ‐
       ent set of the 35 Adobe core fonts; the difference is  mainly
       the  lack  of  the  `Euro' glyph and a reduced set of kerning
       pairs.  For backwards  compatibility,  these  old  fonts  are
       installed also in the



       To  use them, make sure that grops finds the fonts before the
       default system fonts (with the same names): Either  add  com‐
       mand line option -F to grops

              groff -Tps -P-F -P/usr/share/groff/1.21/oldfont ...

       or  add  the directory to groff's font path environment vari‐


              If this is set to foo, then grops uses  the  file  foo
              (in  the  font  path)  instead of the default prologue
              file prologue.  The option -P overrides this  environ‐
              ment variable.

              A  list of directories in which to search for the dev‐
              name directory in addition to the default  ones.   See
              troff(1) and groff_font(5) for more details.

              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros  for  use  with  grops; automatically loaded by

              Definition of PSPIC  macro,  automatically  loaded  by

              Macros  to  disable  use  of characters not present in
              older PostScript printers (e.g., `eth' or `thorn').

              Temporary file.  See groff(1) for details on the loca‐
              tion of temporary files.

       afmtodit(1),  groff(1),  troff(1),  pfbtops(1), groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript   Language   Document   Structuring    Conventions
       Specification ⟨

Groff Version 1.21        31 December 2010                  GROPS(1)
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