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konwert - Charset conversion for files or terminal I/O…  more info»


TRS(1)                   Linux User's Manual                  TRS(1)

       trs - filter replacing strings

       trs [-[r]f] FILE

       Copy  stdin  to  stdout  replacing  every  occurence of given
       strings with other  ones.  This  is  similar  to  tr(1),  but
       replaces strings, not only single chars.

       Rules  (separated  by whitespace) can be given directly after
       -e option, or can be read from FILE.  Argument  not  preceded
       by  -e  or -f is guessed to be a script when it contains some
       whitespace, or a filename otherwise.

       Comments are allowed from # until the end of line. The  char‐
       acter # in strings must be specified as \#.

       Standard  C-like  escapes \a \b \e \f \n \r \t \v \\ \nnn are
       recognized. In addition, \s means a space  character  and  \!
       means an empty string.

       Sets  of  acceptable  characters  at  a given position can be
       specified between \[ and ].  ASCII  ranges  in  sets  can  be
       shortly written as FIRST-LAST.  When a set consists of only a
       single range, \[ and \] can be omitted.

       When a part  of  the  string  to  translate  is  enclosed  in
       \{...\}, only that part is replaced. Any text outside \{...\}
       serves as an assertion: a string is translated only if it  is
       preceded  by  the given text and followed by another one.  \{
       at the beginning or \} at the end of the string can be  omit‐
       ted. Text outside \{...\} is treated as untranslated.

       Before  the beginning of the file and after its end there are
       only \n's.  Thus, for example, \n\{.\}\n matches . on a  line
       by  itself,  including  the first line, and the last one even
       without the \n marker.

       A fragment of the form \?x=N, where x is a letter A-Za-z  and
       N is a digit 0-9, contained in the target text sets the vari‐
       able x to the value N when that rule succeeds. Similar  frag‐
       ment  in  the source text causes the given rule to be consid‐
       ered only if that variable has  such  value.   Initially  all
       variables have the value of 0.  Several assignments or condi‐
       tions can be present in one rule - they are ANDed together.

       -e     Give the translation rules  directly  in  the  command

       -f     Get them from the file specified.

       -r     Reverse  every  rule. This affects only the next -e or
              -f option. Of course this doesn't  have  to  give  the
              reverse   translation!  Any  rule  containing  any  of
              \{\}\[\]\{\}\- is taken in only one direction. You may
              force  any  rule  to be taken in only one direction by
              enclosing the string to translate in \{...\}.

       --help display help and exit

              output version information and exit

       Multiple -e or -f options are allowed. All rules  are  loaded
       together then, and earlier ones have precedence.

       $ echo Leeloo |trs -e 'el n e i i aqq o\}\n x o u'

       The main difference between trs and sed 's///g; ...' (exclud‐
       ing sed's regular expressions) is that sed takes  every  rule
       in  the  order  specified and applies it to the whole line of
       translated file, whereas  trs  examines  every  position  and
       tries  all  rules in this place first. In sed every next rule
       is fed with the text produced by the previous one, whereas in
       trs  every  piece  of text can be translated at most once (if
       more than one rule matches at a given position, the one  men‐
       tioned  earlier  wins).  That's why sed isn't well suited for
       translating between character sets. On  the  other  hand,  tr
       translates only single bytes, so it can't be used for Unicode
       conversions, or TeX / SGML ways for specifying extended char‐

       Another example:
       $ echo 642 |trs -e '4 7 72 66 64 4'
       $ echo 642 |sed 's/4/7/g; s/72/66/g; s/64/4/g'

       The  string  to replace can be empty; there must be something
       outside \{\} then. In this special case only one such create-
       from-nothing  rule can success at a given position. For exam‐
       ple, \}\x80\-\xFF @ precedes every character with  high  byte
       set  with  @.  The rule of the form some\{ thing doesn't work
       at the end of a file.

       tr(1), konwert(1)

       trs is a filter replacing strings. It forms part of the  kon‐
       wert package.

       Copyright (c) 1998 Marcin 'Qrczak' Kowalczyk

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it under the terms of the GNU General  Public  License
       as  published by the Free Software Foundation; either version
       2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be  use‐
       ful,  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied war‐
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You  should  have  received  a copy of the GNU General Public
       License along with this program; if not, write  to  the  Free
       Software  Foundation,  Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Bos‐
       ton, MA  02111-1307  USA

        __("<   Marcin Kowalczyk *
        \__/       GCS/M d- s+:-- a21 C+++>+++$ UL++>++++$ P+++ L++>++++$ E->++
         ^^                W++ N+++ o? K? w(---) O? M- V? PS-- PE++ Y? PGP->+ t
       QRCZAK                  5? X- R tv-- b+>++ DI D- G+ e>++++ h! r--%>++ y-

Konwert                      12 Jul 1998                      TRS(1)
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