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README.sbpcd

This README belongs to release 3.0 or newer of the SoundBlaster Pro
(Matsushita, Kotobuki, Panasonic, CreativeLabs, Longshine and soon TEAC, too)
CD-ROM driver for Linux.

The driver is able to drive the whole family of "traditional" IDE-style (that
has nothing to do with the new "Enhanced IDE" drive standard) Matsushita,
Kotobuki, Panasonic drives, sometimes labelled as "CreativeLabs". The
well-known drives are CR-521, CR-522, CR-523, CR-562, CR-563.

The Longshine LCS-7260 is a double-speed drive which uses the "old"
Matsushita command set. It is supported now - with help by Serge Robyns.

There exists an "IBM External ISA CD-ROM Drive" which in fact is a CR-563
with a special controller board. This drive is supported (the interface is
of the "LaserMate" type), and it is possibly the best buy today (cheaper than
an internal drive, and you can use it as an internal, too - f.e. plug it into
a soundcard).

The quad-speed TEAC CD-55A drive uses the same interface types, but has a
totally different command and flow control scheme. Support is under
construction.

CreativeLabs has a new drive "CD-200". Support is under construction.
Detection should already work.

Regarding CD200 and CD-55A support:
    Please, don't mail me about it if you are not a competent BETA tester 
            (if you are: mail!; I do not have such drives).
    Please, don't drop simple questions about the new drives in the
            newsgroups. Full support needs more or less time.
If you are able to set the appropriate DBG-xxx switches, you can mail me
the "SBPCD:..." messages, regarding the new drives. But I mostly will
not answer (just use) it.

This driver is NOT for Mitsumi or Sony or Aztech or Philips or XXX drives.
For Aztech CDA-268 drives (and for some Wearnes, Okano and Orchid drives),
Werner Zimmermann has done a driver which currently resides at ftp.gwdg.de
under /pub/linux/cdrom/drivers/aztech/.

This driver will work with the soundcard interfaces (SB Pro, SB 16, Galaxy,
SoundFX, ...) and/or with the "no-sound" cards (Panasonic CI-101P, LaserMate,
WDH-7001C, Longshine LCS-6853, older Aztech cards, ...).

It should work too now with the "configurable" interface "Sequoia S-1000",
which is found on the Spea Media FX sound card. I still need feedback about
this, or such a card. Anyways, the procedure "boot DOS and wait until 
CONFIG.SYS is done, then use CTL-ALT-DEL to boot Linux" should make it
work.

The interface type has to get configured in /usr/include/linux/sbpcd.h, 
because the behavior of some sound card interfaces is different.

The driver respects different drive firmware releases - my old drive is a 2.11,
but it should work with "old" drives <2.01 ... >3.00 and with "new" drives
(which count the releases around 0.75 or 1.00).

Up to 4 drives per interface card, and up to 4 interface cards are supported.
CR-52x ("old"), CR-56x ("new") and LCS drives can be mixed, but the CR-521
ones are hard-wired to drive ID 0. The drives have to use different drive IDs,
and each drive has to get a unique minor number (0...3), corresponding to it's
drive ID.
The drive IDs may be selected freely from 0 to 3 - they do not have to be in
consecutive order.

As Don Carroll, don@ds9.us.dell.com or FIDO 1:382/14, told me, it is possible
to change old drives to any ID, too. He writes in this sense:
   "In order to be able to use more than one single speed drive
   (they do not have the ID jumpers) you must add a DIP switch
   and two resistors. The pads are already on the board next to
   the power connector. You will see the silkscreen for the
   switch if you remove the top cover.
                    1 2 3 4
             ID 0 = x F F x             O = "on"
             ID 1 = x O F x             F = "off"
             ID 2 = x F O x             x = "don't care"
             ID 3 = x O O x
   Next to the switch are the positions for R76 (7k) and R78
   (12k). I had to play around with the resistor values - ID 3
   did not work with other values. If the values are not good,
   ID 3 behaves like ID 0."

To use more than 4 drives (now that the single-speed CR-521's are as cheap as
50$), you need a second interface card and you have to "duplicate" the driver.
Just copy sbpcd.c into sbpcd2.c and so forth and change SBPCD_ISSUE (at top
of sbpcd2.c) accordingly.

The driver supports reading of data from the CD and playing of audio tracks.
The audio part should run with WorkMan, xcdplayer, with the "non-X11" products
CDplayer and WorkBone - tell me if it is not compatible with other software.

With the "new" drive family CR-562 and CR-563, the reading of audio frames is
possible. This is currently implemented by an IOCTL function which reads only
up to 4 frames of 2352 bytes at once. Reading more than 1 frame at once misses
some chunks at each frame boundary. Reading the same frame a second time gives
different data; the frame data start at a different position. But all read
bytes are valid, and we always read 98 consecutive chunks (of 24 Bytes) as a
frame. This lack has to get corrected by higher level software which reads the
same frame again and tries to find and eliminate overlapping chunks
(24-byte-pieces).

The transfer rate with reading audio (1-frame-pieces) is as slow as 32 kB/sec.
This could be better reading bigger chunks, but the "missing" chunks occur at
the beginning of each single frame.
The software interface possibly may change a bit the day the SCSI driver
supports it too.

With the CR-562 and CR-563 drives, MultiSession is supported, "ManySession"
(not recommended, see below) alternatively.
Photo CDs work, too (the "old" drives like CR-521 can access only the first
session of a photoCD).
At ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/hpcdtoppm/ is Hadmut Danisch's package to convert
photo CD image files.

The transfer rate will reach 150 kB/sec with "old" drives and 300 kB/sec with
double-speed drives. XA (PhotoCD) disks with "old" drives give only 50 kB/sec.

This release is part of the standard kernel and consists of
- this README file
- the driver file linux/drivers/block/sbpcd.c
- the header file linux/include/linux/sbpcd.h.


To install:
-----------

1. Setup your hardware parameters. Though the driver does "auto-probing" at a
   lot of (not all possible!) addresses, this step is recommended for
   every-day use.
   a. Go into /usr/src/linux/include/linux/sbpcd.h and configure it for your
      hardware (near the beginning):
      a1. Set it up for the appropriate type of interface board.
          "Original" CreativeLabs sound cards need "SBPRO 1".
          Most "compatible" sound cards (for example "Highscreen", "SoundFX"
          and "Galaxy") need "SBPRO 0".
          The "no-sound" board from OmniCd needs the "SBPRO 1" setup.
          The Spea Media FX sound card needs "SBPRO 2".
          sbpcd.c holds some examples in it's auto-probe list.
          If you configure "SBPRO" wrong, the playing of audio CDs will work,
          but you will not be able to mount a data CD.
      a2. Tell the address of your CDROM_PORT (not of the sound port).
   b. Additionally for 2.a1 and 2.a2, the setup may be done during
      boot time (via the "kernel command line" or "LILO option"):
          sbpcd=0x230,SoundBlaster
      or
          sbpcd=0x320,LaserMate
      or
          sbpcd=0x330,SPEA
      (these strings are case sensitive!).
      This is especially useful if you install a fresh distribution.
2. "cd /usr/src/linux" and do a "make config" and select "y" for Matsushita
   CD-ROM support and for ISO9660 FileSystem support. If you do not have a
   second, third, or fourth controller and/or did not prepare sbpcd2 etc.,
   do not say "y" to the secondary Matsushita CD-ROM questions.
   SCSI and/or SCSI CD-ROM support is not needed.

3. Then do a "make dep", then make the kernel image ("make zlilo" or else).

4. Make the device file(s). The driver uses definitely and exclusive the
   MAJOR 25, so do
        mknod /dev/sbpcd b 25 0       (if you have only drive #0)
   and/or
        mknod /dev/sbpcd0 b 25 0
        mknod /dev/sbpcd1 b 25 1
        mknod /dev/sbpcd2 b 25 2
        mknod /dev/sbpcd3 b 25 3
   to make the node(s).
   Take care that you create a node with the same MINOR as your drive ID is.
   So, if the DOS driver tells you have drive id #3, you have to
        mknod /dev/<any_name> b 25 3
   
   For a second interface board, you have to make nodes like
        mknod /dev/sbpcd4 b 26 0
   and so on. Use the MAJORs 26, 27, 28.

   If you further make a link like
        ln -s sbpcd /dev/cdrom
   you can use the name /dev/cdrom, too.

5. Reboot with the new kernel.

You should now be able to do
              mkdir /CD
and 
              mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/sbpcd /CD
or
              mount -t iso9660 -o ro,block=2048 /dev/sbpcd /CD
and see the contents of your CD in the /CD directory, and/or hear music with
"workman -c /dev/sbpcd &".


Things of interest:
-------------------

The driver is configured to try the SoundBlaster Pro type of interface at
I/O port 0x0230 first. If this is not appropriate, sbpcd.h should get changed
(you will find the right place - just at the beginning).

No DMA and no IRQ is used, so the IRQ line stays free for the SB Pro sound
drivers.

To reduce or increase the amount of kernel messages, edit sbpcd.c and change
the initialization of the variable "sbpcd_debug". This is the way to get rid
of the initial warning message block, too.

With "#define MANY_SESSION 1" (sbpcd.c), the driver can use "many-session" CDs.
This will work only with "new" drives like CR-562 or CR-563. That is NOT
multisession - it is a CD with multiple independent sessions, each containing
block addresses as if it were the only session. With this feature enabled, the
driver will read the LAST session. Without it, the FIRST session gets read.
If you would like the support of reading "in-between" sessions, drop me a mail
and some food for the soul. :-)
Those "many-session" CDs can get made by CDROM writers like Philips CDD 521.
If you enable this feature, it is impossible to read true multisession CDs.

The driver uses the "variable BLOCK_SIZE" feature. To use it, you have to
specify "block=2048" as a mount option. Doing this will disable the direct
execution of a binary from the CD; you have to copy it to a device with the
standard BLOCK_SIZE (1024) before. So, do not use this if your system is
directly "running from the CDROM" (like some of YGGDRASIL's installation
variants). There are CDs on the market (like the german "unifix" Linux
distribution) which MUST get handled with a block_size of 1024. Generally,
one can say all the CDs which hold files of the name YMTRANS.TBL are defective;
do not use block=2048 with those.

At the beginning of sbpcd.c, you will find some "#define"s (f.e. EJECT and
JUKEBOX). With that, you can configure the driver for some special things.
The following program disables the auto-eject feature during runtime:

/*=================== begin program ========================================*/
/*
 * set the "eject" switch (enable/disable auto-ejecting)
 *
 * (c) 1994 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>
 *          may be used & enhanced freely
 *
 * Disables or enables the auto-eject feature at run time.
 * Works only if a CD is in the drive (just like the feature itself ;-) 
 * Useful for a "quiet" shutdown or for weird audio player programs.
 */
#define EJECT 0 /* 0: disable, 1: enable auto-ejecting */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <linux/cdrom.h>

static char arg=EJECT;
static int drive;
static int err;

main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
/*
 * open /dev/cdrom
 */
  drive=open("/dev/cdrom", 0);
  if (drive<0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't open drive /dev/cdrom.\n");
      exit (-1);
    }
/*
 * set EJECT_SW
 */
  err=ioctl(drive, CDROMEJECT_SW, arg);
  if (err!=0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't set EJECT_SW (error %d).\n", err);
      exit (-1);
    }
  else
    fprintf(stdout, "EJECT_SW set to %d\n", arg);
}
/*===================== end program ========================================*/

There is a new ioctl CDROMMULTISESSION to obtain with a user program if
the CD is an XA disk and - if it is - where the last session starts. The
following example illustrates how to call it:

/*=================== begin program ========================================*/
/*
 * ask for multisession redirection info
 *
 * (c) 1994 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>
 *          may be used & enhanced freely
 *
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <linux/cdrom.h>

static struct cdrom_multisession ms_info;
static int drive;
static int err;

main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
/*
 * open /dev/cdrom
 */
  drive=open("/dev/cdrom", 0);
  if (drive<0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't open drive /dev/cdrom.\n");
      exit (-1);
    }
/*
 * 
 */
  ms_info.addr_format=CDROM_LBA;
  err=ioctl(drive, CDROMMULTISESSION, &ms_info);
  if (err!=0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "CDROMMULTISESSION(lba) returns error %d.\n", err);
      exit (-1);
    }
  else
	if (ms_info.xa_flag)
	    fprintf(stdout, "lba: %d\n", ms_info.addr.lba);
	else
	    fprintf(stdout, "not an XA disk.\n");

  ms_info.addr_format=CDROM_MSF;
  err=ioctl(drive, CDROMMULTISESSION, &ms_info);
  if (err!=0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "CDROMMULTISESSION(msf) returns error %d.\n", err);
      exit (-1);
    }
  else
	if (ms_info.xa_flag)
	    fprintf(stdout, "msf: %02d:%02d:%02d\n",
				 ms_info.addr.msf.minute,
				 ms_info.addr.msf.second,
				 ms_info.addr.msf.frame);
	else
	    fprintf(stdout, "not an XA disk.\n");
}
/*===================== end program ========================================*/


Auto-probing at boot time:
--------------------------

The driver does auto-probing at many well-known interface card addresses. The
idea to do that came from Adam J. Richter (YGGDRASIL). Some well-known
addresses are excluded from auto-probing because they can cause a hang if an
ethernet card gets touched.

This auto-probing looks first at the configured address resp. the address
submitted by the kernel command line. With this, it is possible to use this
driver within installation boot floppies, and for any non-standard address,
too.

Auto-probing will make an assumption about the interface type ("SBPRO" or not),
based upon the address. That assumption may be wrong (initialization will be
o.k., but you will get I/O errors during mount). In that case, use the "kernel
command line" feature and specify address & type at boot time to find out the
right setup.

SBPCD's auto-probing happens before the initialization of the net drivers. That
makes a hang possible if an ethernet card gets touched.

For every-day use, address and type should get configured within sbpcd.h. That
will stop the auto-probing due to success with the first try.


Setting up address and interface type:
--------------------------------------

If your I/O port address is not 0x0230 or if you use a "no-sound" interface
other than OmniCD, you have to look for the #defines near the beginning of
sbpcd.h and configure them: set SBPRO to 0 or 1 or 2, and change CDROM_PORT to
the address of your CDROM I/O port.

Most of the "SoundBlaster compatible" cards behave like the no-sound
interfaces! 

With "original" SB Pro cards, an initial setting of CD_volume through the
sound cards MIXER register gets done.
If you are using a "compatible" sound card of types "LaserMate" or "SPEA",
you can set SOUND_BASE (in sbpcd.h) to get it done with your card, too...


Using audio CDs:
----------------

Workman, WorkBone, xcdplayer and cdplayer should work good now, even with the
double-speed drives.

The program CDplayer likes to talk to "/dev/mcd" only, xcdplayer wants
"/dev/rsr0", workman loves "/dev/sr0" - so, do the appropriate links for using
them without the need of supplying parameters.


Copying audio tracks:
---------------------

The following little program will copy track 2 of an audio CD into the file
"track02":

/*=================== begin program ========================================*/
/*
 * read an audio track from a CD
 *
 * (c) 1994 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>
 *          may be used & enhanced freely
 *
 * Due to non-existent sync bytes at the beginning of each audio frame (or due
 * to a firmware bug within all known drives?), it is currently a kind of
 * fortune if two consecutive frames fit together.
 * Usually, they overlap, or a little piece is missing. This happens in units
 * of 24-byte chunks. It has to get fixed by higher-level software (reading
 * until an overlap occurs, and then eliminate the overlapping chunks). 
 * ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/misc/cdda2wav-sbpcd.*.tar.gz holds an example of
 * such an algorithm.
 * This example program further is missing to obtain the SubChannel data
 * which belong to each frame.
 *
 * This is only an example of the low-level access routine. The read data are
 * pure 16-bit CDDA values; they have to get converted to make sound out of
 * them.
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <linux/cdrom.h>

static struct cdrom_tochdr hdr;
static struct cdrom_tocentry entry[100];
static struct cdrom_read_audio arg;
static u_char buffer[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
static int datafile, drive;
static int i, j, limit, track, err;
static char filename[32];

main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
/*
 * open /dev/cdrom
 */
  drive=open("/dev/cdrom", 0);
  if (drive<0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't open drive.\n");
      exit (-1);
    }
/*
 * get TocHeader
 */
  fprintf(stdout, "getting TocHeader...\n");
  err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADTOCHDR, &hdr);
  if (err!=0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't get TocHeader (error %d).\n", err);
      exit (-1);
    }
  else
    fprintf(stdout, "TocHeader: %d %d\n", hdr.cdth_trk0, hdr.cdth_trk1);
/*
 * get and display all TocEntries
 */
  fprintf(stdout, "getting TocEntries...\n");
  for (i=1;i<=hdr.cdth_trk1+1;i++)
    {
      if (i!=hdr.cdth_trk1+1) entry[i].cdte_track = i;
      else entry[i].cdte_track = CDROM_LEADOUT;
      entry[i].cdte_format = CDROM_LBA;
      err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADTOCENTRY, &entry[i]);
      if (err!=0)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "can't get TocEntry #%d (error %d).\n", i, err);
	  exit (-1);
	}
      else
	{
	  fprintf(stdout, "TocEntry #%d: %1X %1X %06X %02X\n",
		 entry[i].cdte_track,
		 entry[i].cdte_adr,
		 entry[i].cdte_ctrl,
		 entry[i].cdte_addr.lba,
		 entry[i].cdte_datamode);
	}
    }
  fprintf(stdout, "got all TocEntries.\n");
/*
 * ask for track number (not implemented here)
 */
track=2;
#if 0 /* just read a little piece */
entry[track].cdte_addr.lba=170;
entry[track+1].cdte_addr.lba=190;
#endif
/*
 * read track into file
 */
  sprintf(filename, "track%02d\0", track);
  datafile=creat(filename, 0755);
  if (datafile<0)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "can't open datafile %s.\n", filename);
      exit (-1);
    }
  arg.addr.lba=entry[track].cdte_addr.lba;
  arg.addr_format=CDROM_LBA; /* CDROM_MSF would be possible here, too. */
  arg.nframes=1;
  arg.buf=&buffer[0];
  limit=entry[track+1].cdte_addr.lba;
  for (i=arg.addr.lba;i<limit;i++)
    {
      err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADAUDIO, &arg);
      if (err!=0)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "can't read frame #%d (error %d).\n", 
		 i-entry[track].cdte_addr.lba+1, err);
	  exit (-1);
	}
      j=write(datafile, &buffer[0], CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW);
      if (j!=CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr,"I/O error (datafile) at frame %d\n",
		 i-entry[track].cdte_addr.lba+1);
	}
      arg.addr.lba++;
    }
}
/*===================== end program ========================================*/

At ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/misc/cdda2wav-sbpcd.*.tar.gz is an adapted version of
Heiko Eissfeldt's digital-audio to .WAV converter (the original is there, too).
This is preliminary, as Heiko himself will care about it.


Known problems:
---------------

Currently, the detection of disk change or removal is actively disabled.

Most attempts to read the UPC/EAN code result in a stream of zeroes. All my
drives are mostly telling there is no UPC/EAN code on disk or there is, but it
is an all-zero number. I guess now almost no CD holds such a number.

Bug reports, comments, wishes, donations (technical information is a donation,
too :-) etc. to
                         emoenke@gwdg.de
 or to                   eberhard_moenkeberg@rollo.central.de
 or to my FIDO address:  Eberhard Moenkeberg, 2:2437/210.27


SnailMail address, preferable for CD editors if they want to submit a free
"cooperation" copy:
                         Eberhard Moenkeberg
                         Reinholdstr. 14
                         D-37083 Goettingen
                         Germany
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