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MAXIMA(1)                                                  MAXIMA(1)

       Maxima  - Common Lisp version of MACSYMA symbolic mathematics
       package released under the GNU Public License

       Xmaxima - A graphical version of Maxima

       maxima [options]

       xmaxima [options]

       Maxima is a version of the MIT-developed MACSYMA system, mod‐
       ified  to run under Common Lisp.  It is an interactive expert
       system and programming environment for symbolic and numerical
       mathematical  manipulation.   Written in Lisp, it allows dif‐
       ferentiation, integration, solution of linear  or  polynomial
       equations,  factoring  of polynomials, expansion of functions
       in Laurent or Taylor series, computation of  Poisson  series,
       matrix  and  tensor  manipulations, and two- and three-dimen‐
       sional graphics.  Procedures may be written using  an  ALGOL-
       like  syntax, and both Lisp-like functions and pattern match‐
       ing facilities are provided.  Files containing Maxima objects
       may  be read from and written to disk files. Pre-written Max‐
       ima commands may be read from a file and  executed,  allowing
       batch-mode use.

       -b file, --batch=file
              Process file in noninteractive mode.

              Process Lisp file file in noninteractive mode.

              Process string in noninteractive mode.

       -d, --directories
              Display Maxima directory information.

              Disable readline support.

       -g, --enable-lisp-debugger
              Enable Lisp debugger.

       -h, --help
              Display a brief usage summary.

              Load   the   Maxima   and  Lisp  initialization  files
              string.mac and string.lisp at startup.

              Load the Maxima initialization file file at startup.

              Load the Lisp initialization file file at startup.

       -l lisp, --lisp=lisp
              Use Lisp implementation lisp. Use --list-avail to  see
              the list of possible values.

              List the available Lisp and Maxima versions.

       -p lisp_file, --preload-lisp=lisp_file
              Preload lisp_file.

       -q, --quiet
              Suppress Maxima start-up message.

       -r string, --run-string=string
              Process string in interactive mode.

       -s port, --server=port
              Connect Maxima to server on port.  Note that this does
              not create a Maxima server; Maxima is the client.

       -u version, --use-version=version
              Launch Maxima version version. Use --list-avail to see
              the list of possible values.

              Use   directory   for   user   directory  (default  is
              $HOME/maxima for Windows, $HOME/.maxima for others)

       -v, --verbose
              Print  extra  information  from  the  Maxima   wrapper

              Print the (default) installed version.

              Suppress  expression  labels  and  the Maxima start-up

       -X Lisp options, --lisp-options=Lisp options
              Options to be given to the underlying Lisp.

       Upon initialization, maxima prints a startup message, then  a
       command line prompt:


       All Maxima commands must be concluded with either:

       1)     a  semicolon  (in which case the result of the command
              is echoed on a display line, prefaced by  %o  with  an
              appended sequence number), or

       2)     a  dollar sign (which suppresses printing of a display

       (%i1) diff(sin(x),x);

       (%o1)                         cos(x)

       (%i2) integrate(%o1,x);

       (%o2)                         sin(x)

       The user types in commands which create Maxima objects  (such
       as functions and system variables) and which manipulate these

       On UNIX it may be preferable to run Maxima under Gnu Emacs or
       XEmacs.  You can do this by invoking shell mode in emacs, and
       then invoking maxima.  Preferably, install maxima.el from the
       distribution and use the command:

              M-x maxima

       The  main  advantage  of working inside emacs is that it pro‐
       vides a complete history of input/output.  If you execute the

              display2d: false

       you  will  be  able  to  use  your output as input, by simply
       killing and yanking.

       Lisp is built into Maxima.  The function to_lisp() enters the
       Lisp  read-eval-print  loop.  The  Lisp function (run) may be
       used to return to Maxima. Alternatively, single Lisp commands
       may be invoked by starting a command line with :lisp.

       The  reference  manual  can be accessed from the Maxima input
       prompt.  A description of a given command can be obtained  by
       typing the command


       or, simply,

        ? command

       searches  the  list  of  functions  for  the  string command.
       Demonstration files provide  complete  examples  of  problems
       solved  with  Maxima,  and  may  be accessed with the command
       demo(command);.  A library of user-contributed command  files
       is also provided (the share library), directed toward a vari‐
       ety of problems.

       The reference manual is provided in both info and  html  for‐

       This  list  includes  only  commands which the beginner might
       find useful to know about prior  to  studying  the  reference
       manual and other texts.

              Execute  the contents of file myfile, which is assumed
              to contain Maxima commands.

              Close session file opened by a writefile command  (see

              Execute  the contents of file myfile, which is assumed
              to contain Maxima commands, one line at a time.

              Print the contents of all of the available information

              Print  a  list of the names of currently defined func‐

              Print a list  of  the  various  available  information

              Eliminate  the object(s) contained within parentheses;
              kill(all) Delete all  objects  created  by  the  user,
              restoring Maxima to its initial state.

              Leave Maxima.

              Reset  all  Maxima control parameters to their default

              Print a list of the names of currently assigned scalar

              Write  record of session to file myfile; only one file
              at a time can be open, and the closefile command  must
              be  invoked  prior to leaving Maxima to flush the buf‐

       Maxima is capable of producing 2-  and  3-dimensional  plots.
       Here is a simple 2-dimensional example

       plot2d (sin(x), [x, -2*%pi, 2*%pi]);

       and a simple 3-dimensional example

       plot3d (2^(-u^2 + v^2), [u, -5, 5], [v, -7, 7]);

       By  default  plots  are made by the gnuplot plotting package.
       Plots can be made by other means; see "? plot_options".   For
       more information about plotting, see "? plot".

                 Compiled files for lisp implementation lisp

       /usr/info primary  documentation  directory,  containing info
                 files which are used for  the  'describe'  command,
                 and  also  for  viewing  under  emacs or other info

                 HTML version of info documentation.

                 Maxima demo files.

                 Elisp files for use with Emacs or XEmacs.

                 Contributed external packages.

                 Documentation for contributed external packages.

                 Complete Maxima source.

                 Test suite.

                 Xmaxima support files.

                 Maxima utility scripts.

              Points to a directory for  user  customization  files.
              Maxima's  default search paths include MAXIMA_USERDIR.
              Default value: $HOME/.maxima.

              Maxima looks for its input files in the directory con‐
              figured at compile time, /usr. Maxima can be relocated
              to a different directory as long as the maxima  script
              maintains  the  same relative position with respect to
              the Maxima input files. If, for some reason, the  max‐
              ima  script  needs to be relocated independently, MAX‐
              IMA_PREFIX needs to be set to point to the top of  the
              tree holding the input files.

              MAXIMA_DIRECTORY is equivalent to MAXIMA_PREFIX. It is
              included only for backward  compatibility  with  older
              versions of Maxima.

       Maxima  uses several other environment variables for communi‐
       cation between the maxima script and the lisp image. All such
       variables start with MAXIMA_. They should not need to be mod‐
       ified by the user.

              maximarc is sourced by the maxima script  at  startup.
              It  should  be located in $MAXIMA_USERDIR (see above).
              maximarc can be  used,  e.g.,  to  change  the  user's
              default lisp implementation choice to CMUCL by includ‐
              ing the line "MAXIMA_LISP=cmucl".

              At startup, Maxima will load  the  lisp  file  maxima-
              init.lisp  if it is found in the search path. For user
              customization, maxima-init.lisp should  be  placed  in
              the  $MAXIMA_USERDIR  (see  above). Since Maxima typi‐
              cally has a  system  maxima-init.lisp  in  the  Maxima
              share  directory,  the  user may want to copy the con‐
              tents of the system maxima-init.lisp into his/her cus‐
              tom  file.   Alternatively,  the  user can load a Lisp
              initialization file with another name or  location  by
              means   of  the  --init-lisp  or  --init  command-line

              At startup, Maxima will load the file  maxima-init.mac
              if  it  is  found  in  the search path.  For user cus‐
              tomization, maxima-init.mac should be  placed  in  the
              $MAXIMA_USERDIR  (see above).  Alternatively, the user
              can load a Maxima  initialization  file  with  another
              name  or location by means of the --init-mac or --init
              command-line options.

       Old Reference: MACSYMA Reference Manual (volumes  1  and  2).
       The  Mathlab  Group,  Laboratory  for  Computer Science, MIT.
       Version 10.  January 1983.

       Newer references:

       Maxima is a  complex  system.  It  includes  both  known  and
       unknown  bugs.  Use at your own risk. The Maxima bug database
       is available at


       New  bug  reports  are always appreciated. Please include the
       output of the Maxima function "build_info()" with the report.

       MACSYMA (Project  MAC's  SYmbolic  MAnipulation  System)  was
       developed by the Mathlab group of the MIT Laboratory for Com‐
       puter Science (originally known as Project MAC),  during  the
       years 1969-1972.  Their work was supported by grants NSG 1323
       of  the  National  Aeronautics  and   Space   Administration,
       N00014-77-C-0641   of   the   Office   of   Naval   Research,
       ET-78-C-02-4687  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Energy,   and
       F49620-79-C-020  of  the U.S. Air Force.  MACSYMA was further
       modified for use under the UNIX operating system (for use  on
       DEC  VAX  computers and Sun workstations), by Richard Fateman
       and colleagues at the University of California  at  Berkeley;
       this version of MACSYMA is known as VAXIMA.  The present ver‐
       sion stems from a re-working of the public domain MIT MACSYMA
       for GNU Common Lisp, prepared by William Schelter, University
       of Texas at Austin until his passing away in 2001.   It  con‐
       tains  numerous additions, extensions and enhancements of the
       original.  The original version of this manual page was writ‐
       ten  by  R. P. C. Rodgers, UCSF School of Pharmacy, San Fran‐
       cisco, CA 94143 ( in  1989.  It
       was extensively revised by James Amundson in 2002.

       Maxima  is now developed and maintained by the Maxima project
       at <>.

                         September 10, 2005                MAXIMA(1)
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