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README.mb.big5

PostgreSQL 7.0.1 multi-byte (MB) support README	  May 20 2000

						Tatsuo Ishii
						ishii@postgresql.org
		  http://www.sra.co.jp/people/t-ishii/PostgreSQL/

[��] 1. �P�¥ۤ��F�� (Tatsuo Ishii) ����!
     2. �������������ҵL, ��Ķ�Y�����~, ���p�� cch@cc.kmu.edu.tw


0. ²��

MB �䴩�O���F�� PostgreSQL ���B�z�h�줸�զr�� (multi-byte character),
�Ҧp: EUC (Extended Unix Code), Unicode (�Τ@�X) �M Mule internal code
(�h���y�����X). �b MB ���䴩�U, �A�i�H�b���W���ܦ� (regexp), LIKE ��
���L�@�Ǩ禡���ϥΦh�줸�զr��. �w�]���s�X�t�Υi���M���A�w�� PostgreSQL
�ɪ� initdb(1) �R�O, ���i�� createdb(1) �R�O�Ϋإ߸��Ʈw�� SQL �R�O�M�w.
�ҥH�A�i�H���h�Ӥ��P�s�X�t�Ϊ����Ʈw.

MB �䴩�]�ѨM�F�@�� 8 �줸���줸�զr���� (�]�t ISO-8859-1) ���������D,
(�ڨèS�����Ҧ����������D���ѨM�F, �ڥu�O�T�{�F�j�k���հ��榨�\,
�Ӥ@�Ǫk�y�r���b MB �׸ɤU�i�H�ϥ�. �p�G�A�b�ϥ� 8 �줸�r���ɵo�{�F
�������D, �гq����)

1. �p���ϥ�

�sĶ PostgreSQL �e, ���� configure �ɨϥ� multibyte ���ﶵ

	% ./configure --enable-multibyte[=encoding_system]
	% ./configure --enable-multibyte[=�s�X�t��]

�䤤���s�X�t�Υi�H���w���U���䤤���@:

	SQL_ASCII		ASCII
	EUC_JP			Japanese EUC
	EUC_CN			Chinese EUC
	EUC_KR			Korean EUC
	EUC_TW			Taiwan EUC
	UNICODE			Unicode(UTF-8)
	MULE_INTERNAL		Mule internal
	LATIN1			ISO 8859-1 English and some European languages
	LATIN2			ISO 8859-2 English and some European languages
	LATIN3			ISO 8859-3 English and some European languages
	LATIN4			ISO 8859-4 English and some European languages
	LATIN5			ISO 8859-5 English and some European languages
	KOI8			KOI8-R
	WIN			Windows CP1251
	ALT			Windows CP866

�Ҧp:

	% ./configure --enable-multibyte=EUC_JP

�p�G�ٲ����w�s�X�t��, �����w�]�ȴN�O SQL_ASCII.

2. �p���]�w�s�X

initdb �R�O�w�q PostgresSQL �w�˫᪺�w�]�s�X, �Ҧp:

	% initdb -E EUC_JP

�N�w�]���s�X�]�w�� EUC_JP (Extended Unix Code for Japanese), �p�G�A���w
�������r��, �A�]�i�H�� "--encoding" �Ӥ��� "-E". �p�G�S���ϥ� -E ��
--encoding ���ﶵ, �����sö�ɪ��]�w�|�����w�]��.

�A�i�H�إߨϥΤ��P�s�X�����Ʈw:

	% createdb -E EUC_KR korean

�o�өR�O�|�إߤ@�ӥs�� "korean" �����Ʈw, �Ө��ĥ� EUC_KR �s�X.
�t�~���@�Ӥ��k, �O�ϥ� SQL �R�O, �]�i�H�F���P�˪��ت�:

	CREATE DATABASE korean WITH ENCODING = 'EUC_KR';

�b pg_database �t�γW���� (system catalog) �����@�� "encoding" ������,
�N�O�ΨӬ����@�Ӹ��Ʈw���s�X. �A�i�H�� psql -l �ζi�J psql ���� \l ��
�R�O�Ӭd�ݸ��Ʈw�ĥΦ��ؽs�X:

$ psql -l
            List of databases
   Database    |  Owner  |   Encoding    
---------------+---------+---------------
 euc_cn        | t-ishii | EUC_CN
 euc_jp        | t-ishii | EUC_JP
 euc_kr        | t-ishii | EUC_KR
 euc_tw        | t-ishii | EUC_TW
 mule_internal | t-ishii | MULE_INTERNAL
 regression    | t-ishii | SQL_ASCII
 template1     | t-ishii | EUC_JP
 test          | t-ishii | EUC_JP
 unicode       | t-ishii | UNICODE
(9 rows)

3. �e�ݻP���ݽs�X���۰��ഫ

[��: �e�ݪx���Ȥ��ݪ��{��, �i���O psql �R�O��Ķ��, �αĥ� libpq �� C 
�{��, Perl �{��, �Ϊ̬O�z�L ODBC ���������ε{��. �ӫ��ݴN�O�� PostgreSQL
���Ʈw�����A�{��]

PostgreSQL �䴩�Y�ǽs�X�b�e�ݻP���ݶ����۰��ഫ: [��: �o�̩ҿת��۰�
�ഫ�O���A�b�e�ݤΫ��ݩҫŧi�ĥΪ��s�X���P, ���u�n PostgreSQL �䴩�o
���ؽs�X�����ഫ, ���򥦷|���A�b�s���e���ഫ]

  encoding of backend			available encoding of frontend
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
	EUC_JP				EUC_JP, SJIS
  
	EUC_TW				EUC_TW, BIG5
  
  	LATIN2				LATIN2, WIN1250
  
	LATIN5				LATIN5, WIN, ALT
  
	MULE_INTERNAL			EUC_JP, SJIS, EUC_KR, EUC_CN, 
					EUC_TW, BIG5, LATIN1 to LATIN5, 
					WIN, ALT, WIN1250

�b�Ұʦ۰ʽs�X�ഫ���e, �A�����i�D PostgreSQL �A�n�b�e�ݱĥΦ��ؽs�X.
���n�X�Ӥ��k�i�H�F���o�ӥت�:

o �b psql �R�O��Ķ�����ϥ� \encoding �o�өR�O

\encoding �o�өR�O�i�H���A���W�����e�ݽs�X, �Ҧp, �A�n�N�e�ݽs�X������ SJIS,
������:

	\encoding SJIS

o �ϥ� libpq [��: PostgreSQL ���Ʈw�� C API �{���w] ���禡

psql �� \encoding �R�O�����u�O�h�I�s PQsetClientEncoding() �o�Ө禡�ӹF���ت�.

  int PQsetClientEncoding(PGconn *conn, const char *encoding)

�W���� conn �o�ӰѼƥN���@�ӹ����ݪ��s�u, encoding �o�ӰѼƭn���A�Q�Ϊ��s�X,
���p�����\�a�]�w�F�s�X, �K�|�Ǧ^ 0 ��, ���Ѫ��ܶǦ^ -1. �ܩ��ثe�s�u���s�X�i
�Q�ΥH�U�禡�d��:

  int PQclientEncoding(const PGconn *conn)

�o�̭n�`�N���O: �o�Ө禡�Ǧ^���O�s�X���N�� (encoding id, �O�Ӿ��ƭ�),
�Ӥ��O�s�X���W�٦r�� (�p "EUC_JP"), �p�G�A�n�ѽs�X�N���o���s�X�W��,
�����I�s:

char *pg_encoding_to_char(int encoding_id)

o �ϥ� PGCLIENTENCODING �o�������ܼ�

�p�G�e�ݩ��]�w�F PGCLIENTENCODING �o�@�������ܼ�, �������ݷ|���s�X�۰��ഫ.

[��] PostgreSQL 7.0.0 ~ 7.0.3 ���� bug -- ���{�o�������ܼ�

o �ϥ� SET CLIENT_ENCODING TO �o�� SQL ���R�O

�n�]�w�e�ݪ��s�X�i�H�ΥH�U�o�� SQL �R�O:

	SET CLIENT_ENCODING TO 'encoding';

�A�]�i�H�ϥ� SQL92 ���y�k "SET NAMES" �F���P�˪��ت�:

	SET NAMES 'encoding';

�d�ߥثe���e�ݽs�X�i�H�ΥH�U�o�� SQL �R�O:

	SHOW CLIENT_ENCODING;

���������ӹw�]���s�X, �ΥH�U�o�� SQL �R�O:

	RESET CLIENT_ENCODING;

[��] �ϥ� psql �R�O��Ķ����, ��ij���n�γo�Ӥ��k, �Х� \encoding

4. ���� Unicode (�Τ@�X)

�Τ@�X�M���L�s�X�����ഫ�i���n�b 7.1 �����~�|���{.

5. �p�G�L�k�ഫ�|�o�ͤ�����?

���]�A�b���ݿ��ܤF EUC_JP �o�ӽs�X, �e�ݨϥ� LATIN1, (�Y�Ǥ����r���L�k�ഫ�� 
LATIN1) �b�o�Ӫ��p�U, �Y�Ӧr���Y�����ন LATIN1 �r����, �N�|�Q�ন�H�U������:

	(�Q���i����)

6. �ѦҸ���

These are good sources to start learning various kind of encoding
systems.

ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/doc/cjk.inf
	Detailed explanations of EUC_JP, EUC_CN, EUC_KR, EUC_TW
	appear in section 3.2.

Unicode: http://www.unicode.org/
	The homepage of UNICODE.

	RFC 2044
	UTF-8 is defined here.

5. History

May 20, 2000
	* SJIS UDC (NEC selection IBM kanji) support contributed
	  by Eiji Tokuya
	* Changes above will appear in 7.0.1

Mar 22, 2000
	* Add new libpq functions PQsetClientEncoding, PQclientEncoding
	* ./configure --with-mb=EUC_JP
	  now deprecated. use 
	  ./configure --enable-multibyte=EUC_JP
	  instead
  	* Add SQL_ASCII regression test case
	* Add SJIS User Defined Character (UDC) support
	* All of above will appear in 7.0

July 11, 1999
	* Add support for WIN1250 (Windows Czech) as a client encoding
	  (contributed by Pavel Behal)
	* fix some compiler warnings (contributed by Tomoaki Nishiyama)

Mar 23, 1999
	* Add support for KOI8(KOI8-R), WIN(CP1251), ALT(CP866)
	  (thanks Oleg Broytmann for testing)
	* Fix problem with MB and locale

Jan 26, 1999
	* Add support for Big5 for fronend encoding
	  (you need to create a database with EUC_TW to use Big5)
	* Add regression test case for EUC_TW
	  (contributed by Jonah Kuo <jonahkuo@mail.ttn.com.tw>)

Dec 15, 1998
	* Bugs related to SQL_ASCII support fixed

Nov 5, 1998
	* 6.4 release. In this version, pg_database has "encoding"
	  column that represents the database encoding

Jul 22, 1998
	* determine encoding at initdb/createdb rather than compile time
	* support for PGCLIENTENCODING when issuing COPY command
	* support for SQL92 syntax "SET NAMES"
	* support for LATIN2-5
	* add UNICODE regression test case
	* new test suite for MB
	* clean up source files

Jun 5, 1998
	* add support for the encoding translation between the backend
	  and the frontend
	* new command SET CLIENT_ENCODING etc. added
	* add support for LATIN1 character set
	* enhance 8 bit cleaness

April 21, 1998 some enhancements/fixes
	* character_length(), position(), substring() are now aware of 
	  multi-byte characters
	* add octet_length()
	* add --with-mb option to configure
	* new regression tests for EUC_KR
  	  (contributed by "Soonmyung. Hong" <hong@lunaris.hanmesoft.co.kr>)
	* add some test cases to the EUC_JP regression test
	* fix problem in regress/regress.sh in case of System V
	* fix toupper(), tolower() to handle 8bit chars

Mar 25, 1998 MB PL2 is incorporated into PostgreSQL 6.3.1

Mar 10, 1998 PL2 released
	* add regression test for EUC_JP, EUC_CN and MULE_INTERNAL
	* add an English document (this file)
	* fix problems concerning 8-bit single byte characters

Mar 1, 1998 PL1 released

Appendix:

[Here is a good documentation explaining how to use WIN1250 on
Windows/ODBC from Pavel Behal. Please note that Installation step 1)
is not necceary in 6.5.1 -- Tatsuo]

Version: 0.91 for PgSQL 6.5
Author: Pavel Behal
Revised by: Tatsuo Ishii
Email: behal@opf.slu.cz
Licence: The Same as PostgreSQL

Sorry for my Eglish and C code, I'm not native :-)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NO WARRANTY !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Instalation:
------------
1) Change three affected files in source directories 
    (I don't have time to create proper patch diffs, I don't know how)
2) Compile with enabled locale and multibyte set to LATIN2
3) Setup properly your instalation, do not forget to create locale
   variables in your profile (environment). Ex. (may not be exactly true):
	LC_ALL=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
	LC_COLLATE=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
	LC_CTYPE=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
	LC_MONETARY=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
	LC_NUMERIC=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
	LC_TIME=cs_CZ.ISO8859-2
4) You have to start the postmaster with locales set!
5) Try it with Czech language, it have to sort
5) Install ODBC driver for PgSQL into your M$ Windows
6) Setup properly your data source. Include this line in your ODBC
   configuration dialog in field "Connect Settings:" :
	SET CLIENT_ENCODING = 'WIN1250';
7) Now try it again, but in Windows with ODBC.

Description:
------------
- Depends on proper system locales, tested with RH6.0 and Slackware 3.6,
  with cs_CZ.iso8859-2 loacle
- Never try to set-up server multibyte database encoding to WIN1250,
  always use LATIN2 instead. There is not WIN1250 locale in Unix
- WIN1250 encoding is useable only for M$W ODBC clients. The characters are
  on thy fly re-coded, to be displayed and stored back properly
 
Important:
----------
- it reorders your sort order depending on your LC_... setting, so don't be
  confused with regression tests, they don't use locale
- "ch" is corectly sorted only in some newer locales (Ex. RH6.0)
- you have to insert money as '162,50' (with comma in aphostrophes!)
- not tested properly
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