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ps2eps - convert PostScript to EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) files…  more info»


PS2EPS(1)                                                  PS2EPS(1)

       ps2eps  - convert PostScript to EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)

       ps2eps [ -f ] [ -q ] [ -N ] [ -O ] [ -n ] [ -P ] [ -c ] [  -C
       ] [ -m ] [ -B ] [ -E ] [ -s pagedim ] [ -t offset ] [ -r res‐
       olution ] [ -R +|-|^ ] [ -l ] [  -g  ]  [  -H  ]  [  -d  ]  [
       -h|--help ] [ -W ] [ -L ] [ -V|--version ] [ -- ] [ psfile1 ]
       [ psfile2 ] [ ... ]

       This manual page documents ps2eps version 1.64.

       ps2eps is a tool (written in Perl)  to  produce  Encapsulated
       PostScript  Files  (EPS/EPSF) from usual one-paged Postscript
       documents. It calculates correct Bounding Boxes for those EPS
       files  and  filters some special postscript command sequences
       that can produce erroneous results on printers. EPS files are
       often  needed for including (scalable) graphics of high qual‐
       ity into TeX/LaTeX (or even Word) documents.

       Without any argument, ps2eps reads from  standard  input  and
       writes  to  standard output.  If filenames are given as argu‐
       ments they are processed one by  one  and  output  files  are
       written  to filenames with extension .eps. If input filenames
       have the extension .ps or .prn, this  extension  is  replaced
       with  .eps.  In all other cases .eps is appended to the input
       filename.  Please note that PostScript files for input should
       contain  only one single page (you can possibly use the psse‐
       lect from the psutils package to extract a single page from a
       document that contains multiple pages).

       If  BoundingBox  in  output  seems  to  be  wrong, please try
       options --size or --ignoreBB. See also section  TROUBLESHOOT‐

       ps2eps  follows  the usual GNU command line syntax, with long
       options starting with two dashes (`-').  A summary of options
       is included below.

       -h, --help
              Show summary of options.

       -V, --version
              Show version of program.

       -f, --force
              Force  overwriting  existing  files.  ps2eps  will not
              overwrite files by default to avoid deleting  original
              EPS files accidently.

       -q, --quiet
              quiet  operation  (no  output  while processing files,
              except errors).

       -N, --noinsert
              do not insert any  postscript  code.  Normally  a  few
              postscript  instructions are added around the original
              postscript code by ps2eps which can be turned  off  by
              this option.

       -O, --preserveorientation
              do not filter %%Orientation: header comment.

       -n, --nofix
              do  not  try  to fix postscript code by filtering some

       -P, --removepreview
              remove preview image (smaller  file,  but  no  preview

       -F, --fixps
              fix  postscript  code unconditionally. Otherwise, fil‐
              tering is usually triggered by  detection  of  certain
              drivers only.

       -c, --comments
              preserve document structure comments.

       -C, --clip
              insert  postscript code for clipping. Unless --nohires
              is specified, the HiResBoundingBox  (enlarged  by  0.1
              points) is used for clipping.

       -m, --mono
              use   black/white   bitmap  as  base  for  calculation
              (default: off).

       -s, --size=pagedim
              where pagedim is  a  pre-defined  standard  page  size
              (e.g., a4,a0,b0,letter,...) or explicitly specified in
              a format pagedim:=XxY[cm|in], where X and Y  are  num‐
              bers  (floating points are accepted) followed by units
              centimeter (cm) or  inch  (in),  (default:  cm).   Use
              --size=list  to  list pre-defined pagesizes.  See also
              environment variable PS2EPS_SIZE.

       -t, --translate=x,y
              specify an x,y offset (may be negative) in  postscript
              points  (1/72  dpi)  for  drawing.  This option may be
              required if  your  drawing  has  negative  coordinates
              which  usually  lets ghostscript cut the negative part
              of your picture, because it starts to render at  posi‐
              tive  coordinates.  The  resulting output will also be

       -r, --resolution=dpi
              specify a resolution in dpi (dots per inch) for  draw‐
              ing  under  ghostscript. Default resolution is 144 dpi
              which is the double  of  the  typical  72  dpi.   This
              option may help if there is a hardware dependent reso‐
              lution encoded in the postscript, e.g., 600dpi.  Exam‐
              ple: ps2eps -l -r 600

       -R, --rotate=direction
              This  option  rotates  the  resulting EPS output.  The
              parameter direction determines the direction of  rota‐
              tion:  +  means  +90  degrees  (clockwise),- means -90
              degrees (counter-clockwise), and  ^ means 180  degrees
              (up-side down).

       -l, --loose
              expand the original tight bounding box by one point in
              each direction.

       -B, --ignoreBB
              do not use existing bounding box as page size for ren‐

       -E, --ignoreEOF
              do  not  use %%EOF as hint for end of file. Otherwise,
              ps2eps assumes that postscript  code  ends  after  the
              last  %%EOF comment, because some drivers add trailing
              binary ``garbage'' code which gets deleted  by  ps2eps
              by default.

       -g, --gsbbox
              use internal bbox device of ghostscript instead of the
              external C program bbox. The internal bbox  device  of
              ghostscript generates different values (sometimes even
              incorrect), so using the provided bbox should be  more
              robust.  See also environment variable PS2EPS_GSBBOX.

       -H, --nohires
              do  not generate a %%HiResBoundingBox comment for out‐

       -L, --license
              show licensing information.

       -d, --debuggs
              show ghostscript call. This may be helpful for solving
              problems that occur during a ghostscript call.

       -W, --warnings
              show warnings about sanity of generated EPS file. Cer‐
              tain postscript commands should not be contained in an
              EPS  file.   With  this option set ps2eps will issue a
              warning if it detects at least one of them.

       Based on the given postscript source code (in most cases gen‐
       erated  by  some  postscript  printer  driver) there are many
       potential obstacles or problems that may occur when trying to
       create  proper  EPS files. Please read this section carefully
       to be aware of common pitfalls.

       or how to determine the right size for ghostscript.

       If you have documents that are larger than  your  ghostscript
       default  (usually  A4  or US letter), you have to specify the
       page dimensions explicitly using  the  -s  option.  Otherwise
       your  EPS  might be cut off during rasterizing by ghostscript
       resulting in a wrongly calculated bounding box. You can  pass
       all  pre-defined  page  sizes  to  -s that ghostscript under‐
       stands. These are currently: 11x17,  ledger,  legal,  letter,
       lettersmall,  archA,  archB,  archC, archD, archE a0, a1, a2,
       a3, a4, a5, a6, a7, a8, a9, a10, isob0, isob1, isob2,  isob3,
       isob4,  isob5, isob6, b0, b1, b2, b3, b4, b5, c0, c1, c2, c3,
       c4, c5, c6, jisb0, jisb1, jisb2, jisb3, jisb4, jisb5,  jisb6,
       flsa,  flse,  halfletter.   Unfortunately, all sizes are cur‐
       rently only available  in  portrait  orientation  (not  land‐

       By  default,  ps2eps uses an already given %%BoundingBox from
       the source file, which often corresponds to the size  of  the
       physical page format for which the document was printed. How‐
       ever, you should be aware that this already specified  bound‐
       ing  box  may  be  not  correct,  thus resulting in a wrongly
       cropped (or even no usable) .eps-file.  ps2eps can only do as
       good as ghostscript does in rendering the original postscript
       file (though ps2eps even works with negative  and  fractional
       values  are  contained  in the original bounding box by using
       automatic translation). Therefore, if the given bounding  box
       is  to small or incorrect anyway, you can ignore the existing
       bounding box with the -B option, which will cause ghostscript
       to use its internal default size (or use -s). However, if the
       BoundingBox has negative coordinates, which is not allowed by
       the  specification,  ps2eps will shift the output to positive

       Hint: to avoid rotating the picture if you have the  original
       drawing  in  landscape format, you may use the ``Encapsulated
       Postscript'' option in the printer driver which should gener‐
       ate an EPS file (but with a bounding box of the sheet size!).
       But some Windows printer drivers are drawing the  image  with
       an  offset  from  the  bottom of the portrait page, so that a
       part of it is drawn outside the landscape oriented page.   In
       this  case,  you'll have to specify a square size of the page
       using the maximum length, e.g., 29.7cm x  29.7cm  for  an  A4

       or  why  gets some of my text deleted above the included .eps

       Some postscript drivers draw a white rectangle from  the  top
       left  corner  of  the  page  to the right lower corner of the
       object. This may erase some  or  even  all  text  above  your
       imported/included  EPS file, which is very annoying. In order
       to prevent this, most programs have  a  clipping  option  for
       imported  .eps files (within LaTeX you can use \includegraph‐
       ics*{}) for this purpose. If this is  unfortunately  not  the
       case,  you  can use the -C option of ps2eps which will (hope‐
       fully) do it for you. Unfortunately, PScript.dll 5.2 (Windows
       XP) introduced new very badly behaving Postscript code (init‐
       clip) which will even override the outer  clipping!  Thus,  a
       new filter had to be installed in ps2eps which will fix it.

       However,  because most programs clip directly on the bounding
       box, you still may loose some pixels of your  image,  because
       the  bounding  box  is  described in the coarse resolution of
       postscript points, i.e. 72 dpi.  In order  to  prevent  this,
       you can use the -l option or -C option (for the latter, clip‐
       ping by the importing program should  be  disabled  then)  to
       allow for a 1 point larger bounding box.  -C clips around a 1
       point enlarged bounding box and -l enlarges the bounding  box
       values by 1 point (you can also combine both options).

       Some  postscript  sequences, e.g., for using specific printer
       features (featurebegin ...), are not working well  within  an
       .eps  file,  so  ps2eps  tries to filter them out. But please
       note that filters for postscript code may not  work  properly
       for your printer driver (ps2eps was mainly tested with HP and
       Adobe printer drivers, although it may work for all  printers
       using  the  PScript.dll). In this case you can try to turn of
       filtering by using option -n, or try to find the bad sequence
       in  the  postscript  code  and  adapt  the filter rule in the
       ps2eps  script  (variables  $linefilter,  $rangefilter_begin,
       $rangefilter_end;  linefilter  is an expression for filtering
       single lines, rangefilter_... are expressions that filter all
       lines  between  a  pattern  matching  $rangefilter_begin  and
       $rangefilter_end; drop me an e-mail with your modifications).
       However,  things  may  change  as  the printer drivers (e.g.,
       PScript.dll) or postscript language evolve.

       Some applications or drivers generate  postscript  code  with
       leading  or  trailing binary code, which often confuses older
       postscript interpreters. ps2eps tries to  remove  such  code,
       but  it  may sometimes make a wrong guess about start and end
       of the real postscript code (drop me an e-mail with a  zipped
       postscript source, see section BUGS).

       Comment  lines  or even blank lines are removed (which is the
       default to make .eps files smaller), which may  corrupt  your
       output.  Please  check  the  next  section  how  to fix this.
       ps2eps removes blank lines and  also  <CR>  (carriage  ceturn
       ``\r'')  at the end of lines. However, nicely formatted post‐
       script code gives a hint by using ``%%BeginBinary''  ``%%End‐
       Binary'' comments. When ps2eps detects these comments it will
       refrain from any filtering action within  the  marked  binary

       ps2eps  filters  also %%Orientation: comments by default (you
       can use option -O to turn off filtering), because ghostscript
       may  ``automagically''  rotate  images  when  generating  PDF
       images, which is not desired in most  cases.  Hint:  you  can
       turn off that feature in ghostscript unconditionally by spec‐
       ifying -dAutoRotatePages=/None.

       Some postscript code may get corrupted when comment lines  or
       even  blank  lines  are removed (which is the default to make
       .eps files smaller), because those files may contain  encoded
       images  which  also  have a % as first character in a line or
       use a special comment as end of image delimiter. If  this  is
       the case, use the -c option to prevent filtering comments.

       ps2eps  supports  colored  postscript,  consequently  letting
       ghostscript consume more resources  for  drawing  its  bitmap
       (roughly  6MBytes for an A4 page). bbox is reading the bitmap
       line by line so it consumes only minimal memory. If you expe‐
       rience  problems  with memory consumption of ghostscript, you
       may use the -m option for using a monochrome image. But  this
       will  probably  result  in  wrongly determined bounding boxes
       with  colored  images,  because   ghostscript   has   to   do
       black/white  dithering and may thus suppress objects drawn in
       light colors.

       Please note that a command line option  always  takes  prece‐
       dence over the related environment variable.

       The environment variable PS2EPS_SIZE can be used to specify a
       default page size and take any argument that --size  accepts.
       Examples:  export PS2EPS_SIZE=a0 (bash-like syntax) or setenv
       PS2EPS_SIZE letter (csh syntax).

       If the environment variable PS2EPS_GSBBOX is set the internal
       bbox device of ghostscript will be used instead of the exter‐
       nal command bbox. Examples: export PS2EPS_GSBBOX=true  (bash-
       like syntax) or setenv PS2EPS_GSBBOX 1 (csh syntax).

       The usual call is simply: ps2eps -l file

       A  relatively  failsafe  call would be (if your postscript is
       smaller than iso b0 [100cm x 141.4cm] and  you  have  a  fast
       computer with enough memory): ps2eps -l -B -s b0 -c -n file

       If output is not correct try: ps2eps -l -B -s b0 -F file

       ps2eps was written by Roland Bless.

       Other programs like ps2epsi do not calculate the bounding box
       always correctly (because the values are  put  on  the  post‐
       script  stack which may get corrupted by bad postscript code)
       or rounded it off so that clipping the EPS cut off some  part
       of  the  image.  ps2eps uses a double precision resolution of
       144 dpi and appropriate rounding to  get  a  proper  bounding
       box.  The  internal bbox device of ghostscript generates dif‐
       ferent values (sometimes even incorrect), so using  the  pro‐
       vided  bbox  should  be more robust.  However, because normal
       clipping has only a resolution of 1/72dpi (postscript point),
       the clipping process may still erase parts of your EPS image.
       In this case please use the -l option to  add  an  additional
       point of white space around the tight bounding box.

       Some  people  contributed  code  or  suggestions  to  improve
       ps2eps. Here are at least some names (sorry if I forgot  your
       name):  Christophe  Druet,  Hans Ecke, Berend Hasselman, Erik
       Joergensen, Koji Nakamaru, Hans Fredrik Nordhaug

       An earlier version of this manual page was originally written
       by  Rafael  Laboissiere <rafael at> for the Debian
       system. Thank you Rafael!

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this
       document  under  the  terms  of  the  GNU  Free Documentation
       License, Version 1.1 or any later version  published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  with  no  Invariant Sections, no
       Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts.

       If you experience problems, please check carefully all  hints
       in the section TROUBLESHOOTING first. Otherwise, check for an
       updated version at   <URL:>
       or  send  a  gzipped  file of relevant postscript source code
       with your error description  and  ps2eps  version  number  to
       <roland at> (please allow some time to reply).

       bbox (1), gs (1), ps2epsi (1)

                           24 Januar 2007                  PS2EPS(1)
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